Focus Question #1: What problems did European peace makers confront at the Congress of Vienna and how did they attempt to resolve these problems? Peace terms were imposed by aristocratic and monarchical leaders whose governments and armies had defeated France
A. What to do with France after Napoleon?
1. The French monarchy was restored and the aristocracy reasserted its leadership in France
2. When Napoleon abdicated to Elba in 1814, the First Treaty of Paris easy on France, which retained its territories as of 1792
3. After Napoleon's 100-day return in 1815 and his exile to Helena, the Second Treaty of Paris made the French pay an indemnity, stationed 150,000 troops within France, reduced French frontiers, and required France to return art treasures captured in war
B. How to secure a balance of power in Europe?
1. The great powers of Europe (the empires of France, Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Britain) must not let any one power grow as powerful as Napoleon's empire
2. The great powers should meet periodically to maintain their interests and alliances
3. The great powers ought to intervene militarily when the status quo threatened
C. How to keep public opinion in line?
1. Politics by the few rather than the masses
2. Political activists should be arrested
3. Nationalist ambitions subordinate to empires
Focus question #3: In what ways were liberalism and nationalism compatible with each other; how were they in conflict?
A. The ideology of liberalism
1. Focused on the freedom of the individual, whose civil rights were guaranteed in law, with politics by constitutional means, representative government, and public accountability
2. Took a negative view of government, which the powerful few had used against the many
3. Favored free market, rather than state controls
B. The ideology of nationalism
1. Focused on the nation and national sovereignty
2. Membership in the nation based on birth, a shared past and future aspirations
3. Used national symbols, flags, rulers, churches, armies to rally popular support
C. Liberalism and nationalism favored the many over the few, but differed in three important ways
1. The individual vs. the national interest
2. Negative vs. positive view of government
3. Universalism of human rights vs. particularism of each nation
Liberalism may be identified as a political doctrine that called for individual rights,
representative government and officials being accountable to the public, all to be guaranteed by
constitutional law. The historical significance of liberalism is that it encouraged wider public
participation in government in 19th century Europe.
Utilitarianism may be identified as a political theory that judged policies by their
usefulness, saw no identity between the interests of the individual and society, and favored
governments securing the greatest good for the greatest number. The historical significance of
utilitarianism is that it was the basis of many reforms that were passed in 19th century Europe.
Nationalism may be identified as a political doctrine that favored a correspondence
between government and the people of a particular country who shared the same birthright,
language, customs, and territory. The historical significance of nationalism is that it was identified
with people in early 19th century, but was increasingly associated with the state in late 19th century
Conservatism may be identified as a political doctrine that favored the traditions of the
past, the state church, the monarchy, and the aristocracy, and used the power of governments and
armies to oppose liberalism and nationalism. The historical significance of conservatism is its
power among most states in Europe and in Britain throughout the 19th century.
Socialism may be identified as a political theory that puts the needs of society before those of the individual, suspected upper-class control of government, and favored programs that protected workers and championed the poor. The historical significance of socialism is that its idealistic schemes of the early 19th century gave way to evolutionary and revolutionary tactics in the late 19th century.