Arizona State University
Department of Exercise Science and Physical Education

EPE 452: Exercise Psychology

Instructor:       Daniel M. Landers, Regents' Professor
Days/Time:     Tuesdays-Thursdays, 3:40-4:55
Place:             PEBE 211
Office:            PEBE 112
Office Hours:  9:00-11:00 MTWTh or by appointment
Phone:            965-7664 or 965-3913

Prerequisite:   EPE 352 (Psycho-Social Aspects of Physical Activity)  C grade or better

Course Description:   Contemporary research and theory as related to human behavior and health in an exercise setting.

Course Objectives:   The general objective of this course is to increase one's understanding of human behavior as related to fitness, exercise, and physical activity.  More specifically, the objective is for the student to acquire an understanding of theories, methods, and research literature concerning psychological factors related to exercise and well-being.

Course Format:   The format of the class sessions will vary, but in general a reciprocal interaction in the form of verbal dialogue will be dominant.  To facilitate this interaction, it is expected that students will read the required readings and complete all study questions (if assigned) prior to coming to class.  In addition to lecture material active learning experiences, such as group and individual problem solving, will be an integral part of the class sessions.

Course Text and Reading List:

       A.  Morgan, W. P. (Ed.). Physical Activity & Mental Health. Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Francis, 1997.

       B.  For a few of the topics on the course outline, references in addition to the textbook readings are provided.  Copies of these articles are located in the Library/Conference Room (Rm. 155) of the Exercise and Sport Research Institute in PEBE and can be read anytime from Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Please do not mark or mutilate these materials in any way.  If you wish to photocopy the articles, they are not to be taken out of the Library/Conference Room any longer than 30 minutes.  Also note that it is absolutely essential that the readings be digested (read two or three times if necessary) prior to class discussion of the topic.

Evaluation:   Four items will determine the final grade you will earn in the course: (1) project,  (2) class participation, (3) study questions, and (4) two midterms and a comprehensive final examination.  Note: 89.9% and 59.9% are B and E grades, respectively.  The grading plan is as follows:

 Midterm 1                        10 points        100-   90 =  A
 Midterm 2                        25 points          89.9-80 =  B
 Comprehensive Final        25 points          79.9-70 =  C
 Study Questions               10 points          69.9-60 =  D
 Class Participation            10 points
 Project                             20 points

 Project (20%):

     This project will consist of an interview with either an exercise leader in a commercial establishment or a review of literature on a psychological topic related to the course content.  Student-initiated projects approved by the instructor by the end of the third week of class are also acceptable.

Examinations (60%):

   1.  The student will complete two midterm examinations (Midterm 1 = 10 points & Midterm 2 = 25 points) and a comprehensive final examination (25 points) on the course content.

   2.  The examinations will be essay (2-3 questions).

   3.  Missed exams cannot be made up (zero points) without either arranging this with the instructor prior to the missed exam or having a properly documented excuse (e.g., physician's excuse).

   4.  Opportunity for exam review is provided during class time.  Exams may not be taken from the classroom.

   5.  Since literacy is stressed is this course, points will be deducted for poor spelling, grammar, or responses in outline or abbreviated form instead of paragraph form.  Students with problems in these areas should receive assistance from ASU's Writing Center.

Study Questions (10%) and Class Participation (10%):

   1.  Study Questions (10%)

        Students will be given one or two short answer questions to answer for most of the reading assignments.  After reading the assignment, students are required to answer these questions and turn them in to the instructor during the class period in which the material is scheduled to be covered. No credit will be given if these questions are turned in late.  uestions are designed to develop critical thinking skills.  These questions, which are designed to develop critical thinkng skills, will serve as a springboard for class discussions.

   2.  Participation in Class Discussion (10%):

       a.  Consistent with the concept of active learning, students will be evaluated on relevant discussion of class assignments and readings.  Points will be deducted if students have not read the assigned readings thoroughly and are unprepared to discuss the reading material in class.

       b.  Attendance will be taken and poor attendance, whether excused or not, will impact negatively on one's ability to participate in class discussions.  Although a lower participation grade will result from poor attendance, this can be compensated for by the student satisfactorily completing one of the extra credit assignments (See below, section E).  Likewise, good attendance accompanied by poor participation in class discussions will also adversely affect the class participation grade.

       c.  The instructor should be notified in advance if you plan to be absent, tardy, or have to leave the class early.  Coming late to class or leaving early will also adversely affect the class participation grade.

       d.  It is the student's responsibility to get all missed material, announcements, and assignments.  Although the instructor will provide the student with any handouts (also check the website), the student will have to consult other students in the class for lecture or class discussion notes.

       e.  Cheating will be instantly reported to the Office of Student Conduct.  Not returning or mutilating shared reading materials will also adversely affect the class participation grade.  Finally, talking or passing notes while someone else (either the instructor or another student) is participating in legitimate class discussion is regarded as disruptive behavior and points will be deducted from the class participation grade.

Extra Credit (4 points):

An extra credit opportunity of up to four points is also available.  For those earning all of the extra credit points, this would potentially give them 104 total points in the class.  The extra credit can consist of the following:

   a.  Serving as a research assistant or as a subject in a sport psychology study which is approved by the instructor.  Following participation in this study, the student must meet with the researcher and find out the study hypotheses, design, methodology, and expected results.  The student will then prepare a two-page, type-written paper describing the study and in addition, evaluate the practical and theoretical importance of the study to the field of exercise psychology.  The expectation is that the time required for actual participation in the study not exceed six hours.

   b.  Performing meta-analytic calculation of effect sizes from more recent studies related to one of the areas on the course outline.  For instance, in the area of anxiety reduction following exercise, there are at least 38 studies on the chronic effects of exercise since 1989.  These studies would be provided to the student who would then be shown how to calculate overall effect sizes for a portion of these studies (a portion equal to six hours of work).  The student will then prepare a two-page, type-written paper describing the results of the mini meta-analytic review.  One page of this paper will contain a table summarizing the means and error term for each effect size calculated.

Course Outline and Schedule

 January 16        Course Overview

 Evaluation of Exercise Benefits

 January 18        "What You Need To Know About the Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health"
                        Physical Activity and Fitness Research Digest, Series 2 (No. 6), July, 1996.

 January 23        Exercise Prescription, Course Text, Chapter 2, pp. 33-48.

The Research Process

January 25       Salazar et al. Meta-analytic techniques in exercise psychology.
                        In P. Seraganian (Ed.), Exercise psychology. New York: John Wiley.

January 30       Rowley, A. et al. (1995).  Does the iceberg profile discriminate between successful and less
                        successful athletes?  A meta-analysis.  Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 185-199.

February 1        Laboratory Experience on Exercise Psychology Research Techniques, Romm 168 ESRI.

Exercise and Anxiety Reduction

February  6    Anxiolytic Effects of Physical Activity, Course Text, Chapter 7, pp. 107-126.

February  8    Landers, D.M., & Petruzzello, S. (1994). Phyical activity, fitness, and anxiety. In: Bouchard, C., et al. (Eds.),
                    Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health.  Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.


                                   MIDTERM EXAMINATION 1, FEBRUARY 13

                                  UNRESTRICTED WITHDRAWAL DEADLINE, FEBRUARY 15

Exericse and Psychopathology

                        (1) General Overview & Narrative Reviews
February 15    Drug Therapy and Physical Activity. Course Text, Chapter 5, pp. 81-90

February 15    Antidepressant Effects of Physical Activity, Course Text, Chapter 6, pp. 93-106

February 20     Mutrie, N. (2000). The relationship between physical activity and clinically defined depression.
                        In Biddle, et al. Physical activity and psychological well-being. London: Routledge.

February 20    Martinson, E.W. et al. (1989). Comparing aerobic with nonaerobic forms of exercise in the treatment
                       of clinical depression: A randomized trial. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30(4), 324-331.

                        (2) Meta-Analysis of Exercise and Depression

February 22    Craft, L.L., & Landers, D.M. (1998). Meta-Analysis of Exercise and Depression.  Journal of Sport & Exercise
                      Psychology, 20, 339-357.

Exercise and Stress Reactivity

February 27    LaPerriere, A. et al. (1990). Exercise intervention attenuates emotional distress and natural killer
                       cell decrements following notification of positive serologic status for HIV-1. Biofeedback and
                      Self-Regulation, 15, 229-242.

March      1     Crews, D.L., & Landers, D.M. (1987). A meta-analytic review of aerobic fitness and
                        reactivity to psycho-social stressors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19, S114-S120.

March      6     Overtraining and Staleness, Course Text, Chapter 9, pp. 145-160.

Exercise and Sleep

                        (1) Narrative Review

March      8     Torsvall, L. (1981). Sleep after exercise: A literature review. Journal of Sport Medicine, 21, 218-225.

                       (2) Meta-Analytic Reviews

March     20    Kubitz, K.A. et al. (1996). Physical Activity and Sleep: A Review. Sports Medicine,
                      21(4), 277-291.

March     22    Laboratory Experience, Exercise and Cognitive Functioning, Room 168, ESRI.


                                               MIDTERM EXAMINATION 2, MARCH 27

Exercise and Cognitive Functioning

                        (1)  Narrative Review
March     29    Tomporowski, P.D, & Ellis, N.R. (1986). Effects of exercise on cognitive processes: Psychological
                       Bulletin, 99, 338-346.


                                    RESTRICTED COURSE WITHDRAWAL DEADLINE, March 30

                       (2)  Meta-Analytic Review

April         3     Etnier, J. et al. (1997). The effect of exercise on cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport &
                       Exercise Psychology, 19, 249-277.

Exercise and Self-Esteem

                        (1)  Narrative Review

April         5      Self-Esteem, Course Text, Chapter 8, pp. 127-143.

                       (2)  Meta-Analytic Review

April       10      Gruber, J. (1986). Physical activity and self-esteem development in children. In G.A. Stull
                        & H.M. Eckert (Eds.), Effects of physical activity on children. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Proposed Mechanisms

                        (1)  The Endorphin Hypothesis

April       12      Allen, M., & Coen (1987).  Naloxone blocking of running induced mood changes. Annals of Sports Medicine,
                        3, 190-195.

April       17      Course Text, Chapter 10, pp. 163-177.

                       (2)  The Serotonin Hypothesis

April       19      Course Text, Chapter 11, pp. 179-198.

                       (3)  The Norepinephrine Hypothesis

April        24    Course Text, Chapter 12

                       (4)  The Thermogenic Hypothesis

April        26    Course Text, Chapter 13

May           1    Catch Up and Review for Final Examination (Projects and Extra Credit Due)


                                        Comprehensive Final Examination, Tuesday, May 8, 2:40-4:30