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SHAMANISM:
The Neural Ecology of Consciousness and Healing


TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Illustrations ..... ix

Preface ..... xi

Acknowledgments ..... xvii

1 - Shamanism and Consciousness: An Introduction ..... 1
Chapter Overview ..... 1
Introduction: Anthropology and the Study of Consciousness ..... 2
The Nature of Consciousness ..... 9
A Neurophenomenological Approach to Consciousness ..... 23
Brain Structures and Consciousness: The Triune Brain ..... 29
Symbolic Consciousness: Presentational and Representational Modalities ..... 38
Summary ..... 52

2 - The Nature and Basis of Shamanism: Cross-Cultural and Neurophenomenological Approach to Consciousness ..... 57
Chapter Overview ..... 57
The Phenomena of Shamanism ..... 58
The Shaman as an Etic Phenomenon ..... 63
The Shaman's Initiatory Crisis ..... 78
Visionary Experience: Soul Flight and the Guardian Spirit Quest ..... 85
Shamanic Spirit Relations and Self-Transformation ..... 93
Shamanism and Psychocognitive Integration ..... 101
Summary ..... 110

3 - Physiological and Phenomenological Bases of Altered States of Consciousness ..... 113
Chapter Overview ..... 113
Cultural and Altered States of Consciousness ..... 115
Modes, States, Phases, and Warps of Consciousness ..... 117
Different ASCs in the Integrative Mode of Consciousness ..... 124
The Biological Basis of the Integrative Mode of Consciousness ..... 127
Psychophysiology of the Shaman's ASC ..... 146
The Mediums and Possession ASC ..... 154
Meditative ASC ..... 163
Summary ..... 187

4 - Physiological Bases of Shamanistic Therapies ..... 191
Chapter Overview ..... 191
General Physiological Bases for Shamanistic Therapies ..... 192
Stress and Well-Being: Ritual Effects on the Autonomic Nervous System ..... 201
Therapeutic Effects of Hallucinogens ..... 209
Neurotransmitters, Psychointegrators, and Organismic Functioning ..... 217
Meditation as Therapy ..... 223
Summary ..... 229

5 - Psychophysiological Dynamics of Shamanistic Healing ..... 231
Chapter Overview ..... 231
Ritual Healing: Forms and Functions ..... 232
Medicine's Symbolic Reality ..... 236
Neurognosis, Biosocialization, and Symbolic Penetration ..... 243
Psychosocial Dimensions of Shamanistic and Religious Healing ..... 251
Shamanic Illness and Spiritual Emergency ..... 262
Possession Illness and Therapy ..... 267
Meditative Effects on Self and Emotions ..... 273
Summary ..... 275
Notes ..... 276

Bibliography ..... 277

Index ..... 307


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