Scientific: Viola x wittrockiana
Common: pansy
Family: Violaceae
Origin: Derived originally from Viola tricolor of Central Europe. Classified as V. wittrockiana in 1870's. Pansy is derived from the word 'penser' meaning to think - now figure that one out because this plant is really easy to grow during the winter in Phoenix.

Pronounciation: Vi-O-la witt-rock-i-A-na

Hardiness zones
All, in Phoenix used exclusively as a cool season annual

Landscape Use: Winter season bedding plant, borders, containers, hanging baskets, floral accent

Form & Character: Evergreen herbaceous perennial grown as annual, formal, gay, bright, cheery.

Growth Habit: Short and clumping up to 6 to 8 inches in height with similar spread.

Foliage/texture: Scalloped to crenate green leaves in basal clumps; medium texture.

Flowers & fruits: Single to multiple colored open-faced flowers. Nearly every color imaginable including a new all-white flower selection. F1 and F2 hybrids produce largest flowers that are 2 to 3 inches in diameter.

Seasonal color: OUtstandingly consistent winter flowers color in Phoenix.

Temperature: Ideal growing condition are from 40 to 65oF, though incredibly cold hardy to -10oF with no frozen ground.

Light: Full sun for best flowering. Partial shade prolongs plant viability into late spring, but reduces flower numbers.

Soil: Well drained garden soil, copious organic matter for best performance, salt sensitive.

Watering: Frequent and regular.

Pruning: None

Propagation: Seed

Disease and pests: Fungal root rot if soil is poorly drained, snails

Additional comments: Fabulous winter annual planted out in mid October and to be removed by April. Plant individuals at spacings of 8 to 12 inches apart in mass for best effect. Don't plant out before fall temperatures in Phoenix lower consistently below 85oF! First recorded use as garden flower was in 1629. One of most popular bedding plant accounting for an estimated 3.5% to 4% of all plants sales in the US. Viola cornuta (Johnny jump up) is a close relative to pansy that is native to the native to Spain and the Pyrenees Mountains east to the Balkan mountains in Bulgaria.