Chapter 2: English Spelling, Sounds, and Grammar

Section 1 of this chapter offers examples of spelling irregularities and section 2 describes some of the reasons behind them. Section 3 introduces the phonetic alphabet, which represents spoken language as accurately as possible, and section 4 provides background information on phonetics, which helps explain many of the changes that have occurred in English. Section 5 discusses morphology and syntax since they are relevant to the linguistic changes discussed later in the book.

Useful Links


International Phonetic Alphabet

The Great Vowel Shift

English Spelling and Spelling Reform

Why are the words on this list `mispronounced'?

Extra exercises and review: phonetic processes, grammar review, and non English sound change.

Background for title image provided courtesy of Tom Murphy VII and used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike license. All other images are believed to be public domain.

Neither Elly van Gelderen, Tim Gades, nor ASU is responsible in any way for the information provided by the external links on this page, and make no claims as to its applicability or accuracy.