Chapter 8: Modern English: 1700-Present

This chapter outlines the changes that occur in English from the 18th century on. After 1700, there are fewer major language internal changes than in the previous periods. However, there are many external developments as a result of colonialism. The closer we get to Modern English, the better we can investigate the details of language use, such as differences due to the gender, age, region, and socio-economic status of the speakers, and there are many sociolinguistic studies devoted to these aspects. This chapter focuses on the overall changes in the sounds and grammar of English.

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