CHOUKI EL HAMEL, Ph.D
Professor of History
African Studies, History of Slavery, Race and Ethnicity, Women and Gender Studies, Colonialism, Postcolonial Studies, Islam in the World, North Africa & Middle East Studies
Dr. Chouki El Hamel received his doctorate from the University of Sorbonne (Paris, France). His training in France at the Centre de Recherches Africaines was in pre-colonial African History and Islamic studies. His research interests focus on the spread and the growth of Islamic culture and the evolution of Islamic institutions in Africa. What interests him most as a scholar is the culture of silence. He is particularly interested in investigating the subaltern relationship of servile and marginalized communities to ruling institutions, power, race, class and gender politics within Islamic culture. He is Professor of history at Arizona State University in Tempe. He published two major books and many scholarly articles in academic journals and popular magazines. His most recent book is Black Morocco: a History of Slavery, Race, and Islam (Cambirdge University Press, 2013). Full C.V. upon request.
Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam (Cambridge University Press, 2013)
Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race and Islam chronicles the experiences, identity, and agency of enslaved black people in Morocco from the sixteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century. It demonstrates the extent to which religion orders society but also the extent to which the economic and political conditions influence the religious discourse and the ideology of enslavement. The interpretation and application of Islam did not guarantee the freedom and integration of black Moroccan ex-slaves into society. It starts with the Islamic legal discourse and racial stereotypes that existed in Moroccan society leading up to the era of Mawlay Isma'il (r. 1672-1727), with a special emphasis on the black army during and after his reign. The first part of the book provides a narrative relating the legal discourse on race, concubinage and slavery as well as historical events and developments that are not well known in printed scholarship and western contexts. The second part of the book is conceptually ambitious; it provides the reader with a deeper sense of the historical and sociological implications of the story being told across a long period of time, from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries. Though the strongest element of theses chapters concerns the "black army," an important component of the discussion is the role of female slaves. One of the problems the historian faces with this kind of analysis is that it must rest on a limited "evidentiary base." This book has broadened this base and clarified the importance of female slaves in relation to the army and Moroccan society at large. Black Morocco redefines the terms of the scholarly debate about the historical nature of Moroccan slavery and proposes an original analysis of issues concerning race, concubinage and gender, with a special focus on their theoretical aspects. The Moroccan system of racial definition was clearly "racialist" and was in fact a curious inversion of the Western racist model. Whereas in the western model "one drop" of black blood identifies one as black, in the Moroccan model, "one drop" of white blood identifies one as Arab (i.e., privileged). This process helped create a"nationalist" Moroccan Arab majority and at the same time subjugated black ancestry (i.e., those without the "one drop" of Arab blood), seen as having more bearing on the historical antecedents of slavery. It offers a new paradigm for the study of race in the region that will transform the way we approach and understand ethnicity and racial identities in North Africa and most crucially it helps eliminate the culture of silence -- the refusal to engage in discussions about slavery, racial attitudes, and gender issues. Find on Amazon
La vie intellectuelle islamique dans le Sahel Ouest-Africain (Paris: L'Harmattan, 2002)
Ce livre nous renseigne sur l’histoire culturelle du Sahel ouest-africain, ses ethnies, ses coutumes et ses activités intellectuelles depuis le XVIè siècle jusqu’au début du XIXè siècle. C’est un recueil de biographies de savants qui constitue une source fondamentale sur l’enseignement, la vie intellectuelle et beaucoup d’autres aspects des sociétés de cette région. En situant l’œuvre dans son contexte social et politique, il nous fait pénétrer dans les milieux au sein desquels ces personnages ont vécu et exercé leurs activités de savants, de juristes, d’enseignants. Click here read my english essay based on this book
Selected Articles (see Academia.edu):
- “L’esclavage dans la pensée méditerranéenne” in F.-X. Fauvelle-Aymar and B. Hirsch (eds.), Les ruses de l'historien. Essais d'Afrique et d'ailleurs en hommage à Jean Boulègue. Paris, Karthala, 2013.
- “Albert Memmi” in Cultural and Literary Theory from 1900-1966, edited by Gregory Castle, Volume I. Oxford: Blackwell, 2011.
- “The Register of the Slaves of Sultan Mawlay Ismail in Late Seventeenth Century Morocco,” Journal of African History, 51 (1), 89-98, 2010.
- “Francia y el Islam: un Legado Colonial Legacy o un Encuentro Cultural? Un Análisis más allá del “Hiyab” in Revista Culturas. Seville (Spain): Edición: Fundación Tres Culturas, 7, 116-135, 2010.
- “Constructing a Diasporic Identity: Tracing the Origins of Gnawa Spiritual Group in Morocco,” Journal of African History, 49 (2), 241-260, 2008.
- “Surviving Slavery: Sexuality and Female Agency in Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Morocco,” Historical Reflections, vol. 34, 1, 73-88, 2008.
- “Blacks and Slavery in Morocco: The Question of the Haratin at the End of the Seventeenth Century,” in Disaporic Africa. A Reader, ed. by Michael Gomez, New York University Press, 2006.
- Raça, Escravidão e Islã no Marrocos: a questão dos haratin,” Revista Afro-Ásia, O Centro de Estudos Afro-Orientais da UFBA convida V. As. para o lançamento, 2004, 31, 9-38.
- “Muslim Diaspora in Western Europe. The Islamic headscarf (hijab), the Media and Muslims’ Integration in France,” Citizenship Studies, Taylor and Francis Ltd, 2002, 6:3.
- “The Transmission of Islamic Knowledge in Moorish Society from the Rise of the Almoravids (ca. 1040) to the 19th Century,” Journal of Religion in Africa, 1999.
- Interview with Brahim El Guabli for Jadaliyya Ezine. This interview provides information and context for my book, Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam (Cambridge University Press, 2013)
- Online interview entitled “Les attitudes racistes sont enracinées dans la culture marocaine” published on Senenews.com:
- Racisme au Maroc (Zamane Magazine, November 2013)
- Advice and interview for the program “African Slaves in Islamic Lands” for the public radio series Afropop Worldwide, PUBLIC RADIO INTERNATIONAL and NPR affiliate stations around the U.S.