for Exam #2
- Difference between
nominal and operational definitions (and sequence of conceptualization,
nominal definition, operational definition, and measurement) and how
concepts are measured.
- Indicators and
dimensions (and examples)
- Difference between conceptualization
and operationalization (and examples)
- What is reliability.
- What is validity and
the four types that we covered.
- Tensions between
validity and reliability
choices (e.g., range of variation, degree of precision, variation between
extremes, dimensions, single or multiple indicators, level of measurement
- Levels of measurement
(nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio) and examples of how variables can be
measured at different levels. Recommended level of measurement when one’s
purposes in research are not clear.
- Two types of sampling
(probability and non-probability) and comparisons between them, (concept
and illustration), and all types of each.
- Logic of sampling
(including concepts of representativeness, sampling biases, EPSEM,
randomness, relation to the standard error)
- Two ways to reduce
- Area under the normal
- Terminology and
concepts (e.g., parameter, statistic, population, sampling frame, sample,
- Probability theory: the
standard error and its relationship to the area under the curve, to sample
size, and to the homogeneity of the sample