Prerequisite: EPE 500 (Research Methods)
Course Description: Contemporary Research and theory as related to human behavior and health in an exercise setting.
Course Objectives: To increase one's understanding of human behavior as related to fitness, exercise, and physical activity. More specifically, the objective for this course is that the student acquire an understanding of theories, methods, and experimental literature concerning psychological factors related to exercise and well-being. Finally, an additional objective is for the student to gain proficiency in applying research concepts in exercise psychology by either individually conducting a small-scale meta-analytic review of the literature or by working in small groups to prepare an NIH grant proposal.
Course Format: The format of the class sessions will vary, but in general a reciprocal interaction in the form of verbal dialogue will be dominant. To facilitate this interaction, it is expected that students will read the required readings and complete all study questions prior to coming to class. In addition to lecture material active learning experiences, such as group and individual problem solving, will be an integral part of the class sessions.
Course Text and Reading List:
Seraganian, P. (Ed.). Exercise Psychology: The Influence of Physical Exercise on Psychological Processes. New York: Wiley, 1993.
For some of the topics on course outline, references in addition to the textbook readings are provided. Copies of these articles are located in the Library/Conference Room (Rm. 155) of the Exercise and Sport Research Institute in PEBE and can be read anytime from Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Please do not mark or mutilate these materials in any way. If you wish to photocopy the articles, they are not to be taken out of the Library/Conference Room any longer than 30 minutes. Also note that it is absolutely essential that the readings be digested (read two or three times if necessary) prior to class discussion of the topic.
Evaluation: Four items will determine the mark you will earn in the course: (1) individual project (i.e., meta-analytic review of the literature) or group project (i.e., NIH grant proposal), (2) class presentation of project, (3) class participation, and (4) two midterms and a comprehensive final examination. The grading plan is as follows:
100-90 = A
Midterm 2 15 points 89.9-80 = B
Comprehensive Final 25 points 79.9-70 = C
Project 25 points 69.9-60 = D
Class Presentation 10 points 60 & below = E
Class Participation 10 points
A. Project (25% of course mark):
1. Group Project. This type of project will consist of a proposal for an NIH research grant. Students will work in groups of two or three people in writing and presenting a grant proposal for a series of research projects on the same theme that will be projected to take at least two years to complete. Grant proposal forms from the National Institutes of Health will be completed and copies distributed at least 1 week prior to the presentation. The "applicants" should assume that reasonable expertise, equipment, subjects, and technical assistance are or can be made available. The proposal should be "applicants" first one since obtaining their doctoral degrees.
2. Individual Meta-Analytic Review. Students can individually select a topic from the exercise psychology field in which a meta-analytic review has not already been conducted. There should be at least 20 data-based research studies (i.e., published or unpublished) that deal with the selected topic. A meta-analysis should then be performed by: (a) defining inclusion criteria, (b) coding of moderator variables, (c) calculating of effect sizes (overall as well as for moderator variables), (d) performing a statistical analysis on these effect sizes, and (e) writing the research report (introduction, method, results, and discussion).
B. Class Presentation (10%): Each student or group of students will have a total of 45 minutes for presentations and discussion of the project presented (i.e., either a grant proposal or meta-analytic review). Since the written proposals will have already been distributed and read by class members, the presenter(s) will present a brief (25 minutes) overview of the proposal including theoretical background, literature review, hypotheses, methodology, statistical analysis, and a discussion of what was found (meta-analytic review) or what you expect to find and why (NIH proposal). Groups of students doing the NIH proposal will also have to present and justify the budget contained in their proposal. The remaining 20 minutes should be devoted to general class discussion of the proposal, including its strengths and weaknesses.
C. Class Participation (10%): Consistent with the concept of active learning, students will be evaluated on relevant discussion of class readings and grant proposals. Points will be deduced if students have not read thoroughly assigned readings and are unprepared to discuss materials in class.
D. Examinations (55%): The student will complete two midterm examinations (15 points each) and a comprehensive final examination (25 points) on the course content. The examinations will be essay format.
Course Outline and Schedule
A. Course Overview -- Jan.
B. History of the Field
Jan. 28: Course Text, Chapter 1, pp. 3-35 & Chapter 14, pp. 383-390
Jan. 28: "What You Need
To Know About the Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health"
Physical Activity and Fitness Research Digest, Series 2 (No. 6), July, 1996.
C. The Research Process
Jan. 28 Conceptualization of Fitness, Course Text, Chapter 3, pp. 64-79
Feb. 4: Meta-Analytic Technique, Course Text, Chapter 5, pp. 122-145
Feb. 4: Cohen, J. (1990). Things I have learned (so far). American Psychologist, 21, 1304-1312.
Feb. 4: Research Methodologies, Course Text, Chapter 8, pp. 218-233
D. Motivation and Exercise
1. Opponent-Process Theory
Feb. 11: Solomon, R.L
(1980). The opponent-process theory of acquired motivation. American
Feb. 11: Allen, M.,
& Coen, D. (1987). Naloxone blocking of running-induced mood
changes. Annals of Sports
Medicine, 3, 190-195.
2. Models and Methodologies of Exercise and Affect
Feb. 19: Course Text, Chapter 6, pp. 146-171.
Feb. 11: Rowley,
A. et al. (1995). Does the iceberg profile discriminate between successful
and less successful athletes?
A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 17, 185-199.
Feb. 19: Petruzzello,
S.J., & Landers, D.M. (1994). State anxiety reduction and exercise:
activation reflect such changes? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 26, 1028-1035.
Feb. 19: Gauvin,
L., & Spence, J. (1998). Measurement of exercise-induced changes
in feeling states, affect, mood, and
emotions. In Duda, J. (Ed.) Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Morgantown, WV:
Fitness Information Technology, pp. 325-336.
3. Fitness Promotion
Feb. 26: Course Text, Chapter 10, pp. 254-298
Dishman, R.K., & Buckworth, J. (1996). Increasing physical activity:
A quantitative synthesis. Medince
and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 706-719.
1. Acute Effects
March 4: Course Text, Chapter 4, pp. 80-121
2. Meta-Analyses of Acute and Chronic Effects
4: Landers, D.M., & Petruzzello, S. (1994). Physical activity,
fitness, and anxiety. In: Bouchard, C.
et al. (Eds.), Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
F. Exercise and Psychopathology
1. General Overview
March 12: Course Text, Chapter 13, pp. 358-379.
2. Meta-Analysis of Exercise and Depression
12: North, T.C. et al. (1990). Effect of exercise on depression.
Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 18,
March 12: Craft, L., & Landers, D. (1998). The effect of exercise on clinical depression and depression resulting from
mental illness: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 20, 339-357.
3. Empirical Studies--Exercise & Depression
12: Martinsen, E.W. et al. (1989). Comparing aerobic with
nonaerobic forms of exercise in the treatment of
clinical depression. A randomized trial. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 30(4), 324-331.
12: Jacobs, B.L. (1994). Serotonin, motor activity and
depression-related disorders. American Scientist,
G. Exercise and Stress Reactivity
1. Aerobic Fitness & Psychological Stress
March 26: Class Text, Chapter 2, pp. 39-63.
26: LaPerriere, A. et al. (1990). Exercise intervention
attenuates emotional distress and natural killer cell
decrements following notification of positive serologic status for HIV-1. Biofeedback and
Self-Regulation, 15, 229-242.
2. Sympathetic Response to Acute Psychological Stressors
March 26: Class Text, Chapter 7, pp. 172-217.
3. Meta-Analytic Reviews
March 26: Crews, D.L., & Landers, D.M. (1987). A
meta-analytic review of aerobic fitness and reactivity to
psycho-social stressors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 19, S114-S120.
4. Cognitive Perspectives
April 1: Course Text, Chapter 12, pp. 339-357
1. Narrative Review
April 8: Torsvall, L. (1981). Sleep after exercise: A literature review. Journal of Sports Medicine, 21, 218-225.
2. Meta-Analytic Reviews
April 8: Kubitz, K.A. et al. (1996). Physical activity and sleep: A review. Sports Medicine, 21(4), 277-291.
I. Exercise and Cognitive Functioning
1. Narrative Review
April 8: Tomporowski, P.D.,
& Ellis, N.R. (1986). Effects of exercise on cognitive processes. A
Psychological Bulletin, 99, 338-346.
8: Dustman, R.E. et al. (1994). Physical activity, age,
and cognitive-neuropsychological function. Journal of
Aging and Physical Activity, 2, 143-181.
2. Meta-Analytic Review
April 8: Etnier, J. et al. (1997). The effect of exercise on cognitive functioning: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and
Exercise Psychology, 19, 249-277.
J. Exercise and Self-Esteem
1. Narrative Review
April 15: Sonstroem, RJ. (1984). Exercise and self-esteem. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 12, 123-155.
2. Meta-Analytic Review
April 15: Gruber, J. (1986). Physical
activity and self-esteem development in children. In: G.A. Stull &
Eckert (Eds.), Effects of Physical Activity on Children. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
K. Developmental Aspects
April 15: Course Text, Chapter 9, pp. 237-253
April 15: Arent, S., Landers, D., & Etnier, J (1998). The effects of exercise on mood in the elderly: A
meta-analytic review. Unpublished master's thesis, Arizona State University.
April 15: Course Text, Chapter 11, pp. 299-338