Pronounciation: QUER-cus EYE-lex
Landscape Use: Evergreen shade tree for large landscape spaces, parks, green spaces, large residential yardscapes, lawn tree.
Form & Character: Upright and clean, bark of mature trees intensely striated, Mediterranean.
Growth Habit: Woody evergreen perennial tree, moderately upright to 40 to 70 feet with slightly greater spread when fully mature.
Foliage/Texture: Evergreen, elliptic-shaped leaves that are thick and leathery, persistant, with a pronounced midvein. Adaxial leaf surface is dark green, abaxial surface is tomentose and yellowish. Young developing leaves are pubescent. In local cultivation in southwest United States, leaf margins are smooth and entire tapering to a acuminate tip (like Burford holly (Ilex cornuta 'Burford'); medium texture.
Flowers & Fruits: Ornamentally inconspicuous.
Seasonal Color: None
Light: Full sun
Watering: Infrequent deep summer irrigations to regular water is needed in Phoenix. Holly oak is tolerant of lawn conditions; also salt tolerant.
Pruning: Elevate canopy base very slowly and only as needed because the trunk is susceptible to sunscald in Phoenix.
Propagation: Seed, but seedling plants produce a deep taproot and need to be planted out into their permanent positions as soon as possible.
Disease and pests: Spider mites when foliage becomes overly dusty.
Additional comments: Holly oak is an excellent selection for large spaces when a large tree with a regular, upright and spreading form is desired. In my opinion, holly oak should be planted more in Phoenix landscapes. This is a great, tough evergreen tree.