Last modified:

This course is an online, 3-credit English course, running for 10 weeks, from September 12, 2005 through November 18, 2005. The course has been assigned two schedule line numbers because students enrolled in the BLS program must enroll under a separate BLS schedule line number. Non-BLS students will use the other number assigned to this course. For non-BLS students, the SLN is 39918. For BLS students, the SLN is 90601.

Each week you will be responsible for reading and taking notes on the novel under discussion for that week, listening to and taking notes on the online lectures, contributing to online discussion on Blackboard, and submitting written assignments -- when they are due -- to the Digital Drop Box in Blackboard. The details can be found under "Requirements" below.

Be sure to check the "Announcements" area in Blackboard every time you log on for updated information about the course.

The goals of this course are to enhance your understanding of how the British novel developed over the course of the nineteenth century and to improve your skills in writing and critical analysis. Because this is a 10-week course, you should expect that the course will demand more of your time and attention each week than would a 15-week semester course.

Dr. Dan Bivona
Office: FOUND 1150
Online office hours: Wednesdays, 2-5 pm, MST
Phone: 480-965-8260

Office Hours: These will be held online every Wednesday afternoon. We will use Yahoo Messenger so that we can take advantage of its free VOIP connection. For instructions about how to connect via Yahoo Messenger, see the "Office Hours" link on our Blackboard site.

Office hours will be on a drop-in basis. If you arrive when someone is already talking with me, I will ask that person if he or she wishes to make it an open conference. If the answer is "Yes," then you will be admitted to the conference. If not, then I will ask you to wait a few minutes before admitting you. Please note that you may also schedule individual online office conferences by sending me an email request. Since this is an online course, I will assume that most students will visit me online. If you wish to visit my office in person, let's schedule a meeting in FOUND 1150 at a different time of the week.

Over the course of the nineteenth century Britain became the dominant world power, extending its empire to cover one-fifth of the globe. At home it went through dramatic social and cultural changes spurred by the Industrial Revolution, which happened first there beginning in the late eighteenth century. As thousands of poor streamed into the industrial cities to work in the mills, they formed the world's first industrial proletariat, working largely for low wages and under harsh conditions. As the working class grew in size, the British middle class also grew in size, prosperity, and political importance, and it is during the Victorian age (1837-1901) that British society and culture came to be dominated by middle class tastes and values.

One of the chief symptoms of the growing cultural importance of the middle class was the growth in popularity of the novel, the nineteenth century equivalent of television today. In this course we will discuss how the novel grew to such prominence by reading 5 examples of well-known nineteenth century novels. These 5 span the century, from Jane Austen, who wrote during the period of the Napoleonic Wars, when Britain was at war with France, through the 1890s and Oscar Wilde, who arguably became the first modern literary celebrity in the 1880s. We will dedicate 2 weeks to the discussion of each novel in the context of its time.

Assignment Where it can be found Due Date % of Final Grade
1 critical paper, 3-5 pages in length Topics in the "Writing Assignments" area due in the Digital Drop Box on Oct. 7, 5 PM 20%*
1 critical research paper, 10-12 pages in length Topics in the "Writing Assignments" area due in the Digital Drop Box on Nov. 21, 9 AM 35%
1 take-home final exam Questions in the "Final Exam" area due in the Digital Drop Box on Nov. 18, 5 PM 20%
weekly contributions to class discussion "Discussion Board" area throughout 25%
Total     100%

*You have the option to revise and resubmit this critical paper for an additional grade. If you choose to do so, your first draft grade will count for 10% of your final grade and the revision grade will count for 10%. Revisions are due in the digital drop box on the final day of class, November 18.

The first paper should be 3-5 pages in length. Topics can be found on Blackboard by following the "Writing Assignments" link. These papers are to be submitted to the digital drop box in Blackboard no later than 11:59.59 pm on the due date. Papers will be reduced a grade for every day they are late. Use MLA Format for citations.

A note on getting started: It is crucial that you find a thesis to argue and cite evidence from the text(s) to support your claims. Effective note-taking on the novels is very important, because you will need to use your notes to find the evidence to support your claims. An effective literary thesis should assert something about the meaning of the work that is not obvious to everyone who has read it. To get started with formulating your thesis, I usually invite students to identify a topic first and then find an issue which is worth arguing about. If you can formulate that issue as a question, your general answer to that question can be your thesis. You may email me a thesis paragraph in advance if you wish some feedback before you actually complete the paper. You are allowed to pick up and develop points made in class discussion on your papers provided they are related to the topic you have chosen. See the topics on Blackboard for further instructions. Please note that I will be holding synchronous office hours on Wednesdays, 2-5 pm MST and will be glad to address any questions you might have then. If you cannot meet during office hours, please let me know and we will schedule a more convenient time to meet.

The final paper, a critical research paper, should be 10-12 pages in length. You should use at least three secondary sources. Again, topics will be found on the course Blackboard in the "Writing Assignments" area.

The final exam will be a limited time essay exam. You will have 8 hours to submit your exam to the Digital Drop Box after the exam has appeared online in the "Final Exam " area of Blackboard. Sample questions will appear on Blackboard 2 weeks before the final. Students who read all the novels, took effective notes, completed their other writing assignments, and contributed to online class discussion will be well-prepared to answer the questions on this exam.

Weekly contributions to online class discussion: These are mandatory in this class. Everyone is required to pose at least 6 questions to the group online over the course of the 10-week term. In addition, every student is required to respond at least once per week to other students' or my questions. You will be graded both on the frequency of your contributions and on the quality of them. The best strategy is to post at least 3 or 4 thoughtful responses and/or questions per week. Please be sure to make them thoughtful, paragraph-long responses, not quick, two-word responses, and be sure to observe the conventions of civil online discourse (no flaming or personal remarks about other students in the class). Questions may deal with the previous week's reading or with the upcoming week's reading (separate discussion forums will be created with the names of each major author on the syllabus). You may ask questions or make responses that relate current material to material introduced earlier in the course, but please do not pose questions about a novel that the rest of the class will not have read for two more weeks. Questions and responses should be posted no later than midnight MST on Wednesday of each week to be counted for that week.


Author Novel Date
Jane Austen Pride and Prejudice 1813
Emily Bronte Wuthering Heights 1847
Charles Dickens Great Expectations 1860
Thomas Hardy Tess of the D'Urbervilles 1891
Oscar Wilde The Picture of Dorian Gray 1890

The editions we will be using are all available online. Follow the links above. You must download Microsoft Reader software to read the ebook editions. Please note: you must use the Microsoft Internet Explorer browser to download these ebooks if you wish them to appear permanently in your Microsoft Ebook Reader. You can return to using Mozilla Firefox after you have downloaded the ebooks.

If you prefer to use paperback editions of these books, you may order them through However, please keep in mind that everyone in the class will be using the ebook edition and referring to page numbers in the ebook editions during class discussion.

Please note that all work done for this course must be your original work. If you make use of the insights of other writers, you must cite them in your papers using MLA citation format. Punishments for plagiarism can be very severe and may include a permanent grade of "failure with academic dishonesty" or suspension from the University. If you have any questions about what constitutes plagiarism, please ask me.

Week Topic Reading/Assignments
Sept. 12-16

Lecture 1: "The Origins of the British Novel and the News/Novels Discourse"

Pride and Prejudice
Sept. 19-23 Lecture 2: "Jane Austen" Pride and Prejudice continued
Sept. 26-30 Lecture 3: "Evangelical Reform and the British Novel" Wuthering Heights; Itard, "Of the First Developments of the Young Savage of Aveyron" (online reserve)
Oct. 3-7 Lecture 4: "The Brontës" Wuthering Heights continued; Nietzsche, from Beyond Good and Evil: "What is Noble?"  
Oct. 10-17 Lecture 5: "Dickens, the Novel, the Family, and the Police " Great Expectations (read the first half of this novel); Brooks, "Design and Intention in Narrative" (JSTOR)
Oct. 17-21 Lecture 6: "Dickens" Great Expectations (complete the reading of this novel)
Oct. 24-28 Lecture 7: "Evolutionary Theory and the British Novel" Tess of the D'Urbervilles
Oct. 31-Nov. 4 Lecture 8: "Hardy" Tess of the D'Urbervilles continued
Nov. 7-11 Lecture 9: "Aestheticism and the Fin de Siècle " The Picture of Dorian Gray
Nov. 14-18 Lecture 10: "Oscar Wilde" The Picture of Dorian Gray continued

The lectures are in Microsoft Powerpoint format and have an audio track. Because they download to your computer, a slow internet connection speed should make no difference in how well they sound on your computer. If you do not have Microsoft Powerpoint on your computer, please email me right away and I will devise a way of getting the lectures to you.

The lectures are of two types: 1) broadly contextual lectures, such as those dealing with the origins of the British novel or the evolution of Victorian middle class morality and 2) lectures that focus in on the novelist and novel for the week. The latter are "open-ended" in the sense that they are intended to raise questions about the novels that can be addressed during class discussion and might become the focus of your papers. These latter lectures are not intended to close off interpretive possibilities by offering "the one definitive interpretation" of a particular novel (as if there were such a thing) but rather to open up a number of possible approaches to interpreting the novels.

For most research use ASU Library Online:

  • For an online introduction to using library resources for research, go to the Instructions and Tutorials page.
  • A note on using library sources: if you are unable to visit the ASU library physically, you will find that you can nonetheless find many research materials online. This includes books as well as articles, primary as well as secondary sources. The online catalog will tell you whether or not the material you are seeking is available online. First search for the book you want through the online catalog. When you pull it up, under the "Status" heading it will say "Online" if the book is available online. Sometimes you will be referred to another database such as NetLibrary from which you will be able to access the book.
  • Many articles are available online to ASU students. Follow the "articles" link off the main ASU library page and pick a database to use. The database most frequently used for literary research is the MLA Bibliography. Type in the database name. You will be taken to a search page in that database. Enter your search terms and find the article(s) you want. If they are available in full text through an online database, you will be told how to retrieve them, usually through one or more of the most frequently-used full-text journal databases such as JSTOR. Make sure that you go through the "articles" link to then search and retrieve the article from JSTOR by entering that database's name in the search field. By entering through the "articles" link you will be validated as an ASU student and will be allowed to access the article.
  • Databases such as Literature Online contain significant collections of primary texts. Databases such as the Literature Resource Center provide access to primary texts, biographical articles, and critical articles on a wide range of well-known authors. Access these through the "articles" link. These databases and many more are available to registered ASU students.

For general searches, you can start with Google:

  • Google is the best general search engine and will give you access to resources on the Web. However, you should keep in mind that you have to critically evaluate the material you find on the open Web. It may be authoritative or it may be full of erroneous information. For guidance on evaluating information found on the Web, visit the ASU SunTutor site.
  • Google Scholar can provide you with an easy way to pull together a bibliography of information sources on any particular topic by eliminating the need to go to multiple bibliographic databases such as MLA Bibliography. If you are seeking information for a research paper that has an interdisciplinary focus (say, "Jane Austen and the manners of the gentry class in the early nineteenth century"), you might want to use a bibliographic database that is broader in focus than the MLA Bibliography. You can search through multiple bibliographic databases (say, MLA Bibliography AND Historical Abstracts), or you can search through Google Scholar. Just keep in mind that once you find the articles you need you will need to go through the ASU Library's "articles" link to get online access to many of the articles you find. Few good journals allow open online access to their articles through the Web.


Supplementary Readings Organized by Topic
(these are just the highlights).

Sympathy, Sensibility, and Spectacle :
• Anderson, Amanda. Tainted Souls and Painted Faces: The Rhetoric of Fallenness in Victorian Culture. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1993.
• Barker-Benfield, G.J. The Culture of Sensibility: Sex and Society in Eighteenth-Century Britain. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1992.
• Batten, Guinn. The Orphaned Imagination: Melancholy and Commodity Culture in English Romanticism. Durham and London: Duke UP, 1998.
• Bell, Michael. Sentimentalism, Ethics, and the Culture of Feeling. New York: Palgrave, 2000.
• Brooks, Peter. Body Work: Objects of Desire in Modern Narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1993.
• Burke, Edmund. A Philosophical Enquiry into the Sublime and Beautiful [1757]. Ed. David Womersley. London: Penguin, 1998.
• Dever, Carolyn. Death and the Mother from Dickens to Freud. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
• Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966.
• Engels, Frederick. The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State. Trans.Ernest Untermann. 1884. Chicago: Kerr, 1902.
• Freud, Sigmund. “Mourning and Melancholia.” SE 14, 239-258.
• Hadley, Elaine. Melodramatic Tactics: Theatricalized Dissent in the English Marketplace, 1800-1885. Stanford: Stanford UP, 1995.
• Hinton, Laura. The Perverse Gaze of Sympathy: Sadomasochistic Sentiments from Clarissa to Rescue 911. Albany: SUNY P, 1991.
• Hochman, Baruch and Ilja Wachs. Dickens: The Orphan Condition. Madison: Farleigh Dickinson UP and London: Associated University Presses, 1999.
• Jameson, Frederic. “Imaginary and Symbolic in Lacan: Marxism, Psychoanalytic Criticism, and the Problem of the Subject.” Yale French Studies 55/56 (1977): 338-395.
• Klein, Melanie. “Early Sages of the Oedipus Conflict.” International Journal of Psycho Analysis 9 (1928): 167-180.
• _____. “The Importance of Symbol-Formation in the Development of the Ego.” International Journal of Psycho Analysis 11 (1930): 24-39.
• _____. “Infantile Anxiety-Situations Reflected in a Work of Art and in the Creative Impulse.” International Journal of Psycho Analysis 10 (1929): 436-443.
• _____. The Psycho-Analysis of Children. London: Hogarth, 1932.
• _____. “The Psychological Principles of Infant Analysis.” International Journal of Psycho Analysis 8 (1927): 25-37.
• Kristeva, Julia. Powers of Horror: An Essay on Abjection. Trans. Leon S. Roudiez. New York: Columbia UP, 1982.
• _____. Revolution in Poetic Language. Trans. Margaret Waller. New York: Columbia UP, 1984.
• Lacan, Jacques. Écrits: A Selection. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Norton, 1977.
• Lenard, Mary. Preaching Pity: Dickens, Gaskell, and Sentimentalism in Victorian Culture. New York: Peter Lang, 1999.
• Marshall, David. The Surprising Effects of Sympathy: Marivaux, Diderot, Rousseau, and Mary Shelley. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1988.
• McGann, Jerome. The Poetics of Sensibility: A Revolution in Literary Style. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996.
• Newlyn, Lucy. Reading, Writing and Romanticism: The Anxiety of Reception. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.
• Noble, Marianne. The Masochistic Pleasures of Sentimental Literature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton, 2000.
• Ramazani, Jahan. “Hardy and the Poetics of Melancholia: Poems of 1912-13 and Other Elegies for Emma” ELH 58.4 (1991): 957-977.
• Smith, Adam. The Theory of Moral Sentiments [1759]. Amherst, NY: Prometheus, 2000.
• Todd, Janet. Sensibility: An Introduction. London and New York: Methuen, 1986.
• Voskuil, Lynn M. “Feeling Public: Sensation Theater, Commodity Culture, and the Victorian Public Sphere.” Victorian Studies 44.2 (2002): 245-74.
• Walkowitz, Judith R. City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London. London: Virago, 1992.
• Žižek, Slavoj. Looking Awry: An Introduction to Jacques Lacan through Popular Culture. Cambridge, MA: MIT P, 2000.

Industrialism and Social Class:
• Booth, Charles. Life and Labour of the People in London. New York: AMS, 1970 [reprint of the 1902-04 edition].
• Booth, William. In Darkest England, and the Way Out. New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1890.
• Braverman, Harry. Labor and Monopoly Capital: The Degradation of Work in the Twentieth Century. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974.
• Cannadine, David. The Decline and Fall of the British Aristocracy. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
• Cobbett, William. Rural Rides. London: J. M. Dent, 1912 [1825].
• Engels, Frederick. The Condition of the Working Class in England in 1844. Trans. Florence Kelley Wischnewtzky. London: Allen and Unwin, 1952 [first English translation: 1892].
• Gagnier, Regenia. Subjectivities: A History of Self-Representation in Britain, 1832-1920. New York: Oxford UP, 1991.
• Gallagher, Catherine. The Industrial Revolution of English Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980.
• Gaskell, Elizabeth. North and South. Ed. Dorothy Collin. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1971 [1854].
Gender and Class in Modern Europe. Edited Laura L. Frader and Sonya Rose. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, 1996.
• Himmelfarb, Gertrude. The Idea of Poverty: England in the Early Industrial Age. New York: Knopf, 1984.
• Keating, Peter J. The Working Classes in Victorian Fiction. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1971.
• Mayhew, Henry. London Labour and the London Poor. New York: Dover 1968 [1861-1862].
• Mearns, Andrew. The Bitter Cry of Outcast London. Edited with introd. by Anthony S. Wohl. New York, Humanities Press, 1970 [1885].
• Perkin, Harold. The Rise of Professional Society: England Since 1880. London and New York: Routledge, 1989.
• Stallybrass, Peter and Allon White. The Politics and Poetics of Transgression. London: Methuen, 1986.
• Stedman Jones, Gareth. The Languages of Class: Studies in English Working Class History, 1832-1982. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1983.
• __________. Outcast London: A Study in the Relationship Between Classes in Victorian Society. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.
• Thompson, E.P. The Making of the English Working Class. New York: Random House, 1966.
• Thompson, F. M. L. The Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Victorian Britain, 1830-1900. London: HarperCollins, 1988.
• Watt, Ian P. The Rise of the Novel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964.
• Webb, Beatrice. The Diary of Beatrice Webb. Edited by Norman and Jeanne MacKenzie. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1982-1985.
• Wohl, Anthony S. The Eternal Slum: Housing and Social Policy in Victorian London. London: E. Arnold, 1977.
• Beer, Gillian. Darwin's Plots: Evolutionary Narrative in Darwin, George Eliot, and Nineteenth-Century Fiction. London: Routledge, 1983.
• Burrow, J. W. Evolution and Society: A Study in Victorian Social Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1966.
• Draenos, Stan. Freud's Odyssey: Psychoanalysis and the End of Metaphysics. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.
• Levine, George. Darwin and the Novelists: Patterns of Science in Victorian Fiction. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
• Lombroso, Cesare. The Man of Genius. Trans. Anonymous. London: W. Scott Pub. Co., 1910.
• Ritvo, Harriet. The Animal Estate: The English and Other Creatures in the Victorian Age. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard University Press, 1987.
• Stocking, George W., Jr. Victorian Anthropology. New York: Macmillan, 1987.

• Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York and London: Routledge, 1990.
• Crosby, Christina. The Ends of History: Victorians and "The Woman Question." New York: Routledge, 1991.
• Cvetkovich, Ann. Mixed Feelings : Feminism, Mass Culture, and Victorian Sensationalism. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1992.
• Gilbert, Sandra and Susan Gubar. The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth-Century Literary Imagination. New Haven : Yale University Press, 1979.
• Poovey, Mary. Uneven Developments: the Ideological Work of Gender in Mid-Victorian England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1988.
• Showalter, Elaine. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. New York: Viking, 1990.
Rewriting the Victorians: Theory, History, and the Politics of Gender. Edited by Linda M.Shires. New York: Routledge, 1992.
• Tuchman, Gaye. Edging Women Out: Victorian Novelists, Publishers, and Social Change. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.
• Warhol, Robyn R. Gendered Interventions: Narrative Discourse in the Victorian Novel. New Brunswick : Rutgers University Press, 1989.

• Bivona, Daniel. Desire and Contradiction: Imperial Visions and Domestic Debates in Victorian Literature. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990.
• __________. British Imperial Literature, 1870-1940: Writing and the Administration of Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1998.
• Brantlinger, Patrick. Rule of Darkness: British Literature and Imperialism, 1830-1914. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1988.
• Bongie, Chris. Exotic Memories: Literature, Colonialism, and the Fin de Siècle. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1991.
• David, Deirdre. Rule Britannia: Women, Empire, and Victorian Writing. Ithaca and London: Cornell UP, 1995.
• Hobson, J. A. Imperialism: A Study. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1938 [1902].
• Hyam, Ronald. Empire and Sexuality: The British Experience. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1990.
Imperialism and Popular Culture. Ed. John M. Mackenzie. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1986.
• Krebs, Paula M. Gender, Race, and the Writing of Empire: Public Discourse and the Boer War. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1999.
• McClintock, Anne. Imperial Leather. New York and London: Routledge, 1995.
Nation and Narration. Ed. Homi K. Bhabha. New York and London: Routledge, 1990.
• Richards, Thomas. The Imperial Archive: Knowledge and the Fantasy of Empire. London and New York: Verso, 1993.
• Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage, 1979.
• __________. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Knopf, 1993.
• Sharpe, Jenny. Allegories of Empire: The Figure of Woman in the Colonial Text. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1993.
• Tidrick, Kathryn. Empire and the English Character. London: I.B. Tauris and Co., 1992.

• Altick, Richard D. Victorian People and Ideas. New York and London: Norton, 1973.
• Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London and New York: Verso, 1991.
• Harpham, Geoffrey Galt. The Ascetic Imperative in Culture and Criticism. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press,1987.
• Hobsbawm, E. J. Industry and Empire: From 1750 to the Present Day. London: Penguin, 1999.
• Poovey, Mary. A History of the Modern Fact: Problems of Knowledge in the Sciences of Wealth and Society. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1998.
• Poovey, Mary. Making a Social Body: British Cultural Formation, 1830-1864. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995.
• Thompson, F. M. L. The Rise of Respectable Society: A Social History of Victorian Britain, 1830-1900. London: HarperCollins, 1988.

The Novel:
• Brooks, Peter. Reading for the Plot: Design and Intention in Narrative. Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP, 1992.
• Kucich, John. Repression in Victorian Fiction: Charlotte Brontë, George Eliot, and Charles Dickens. Berkeley : University of California Press, 1987.
• Litvak, Joseph. Caught in the Act: Theatricality in the Nineteenth-Century English Novel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1992.
• Miller, D. A. The Novel and the Police. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988.

Sexuality Studies:
• Dollimore, Jonathan. Sexual Dissidence: Augustine to Wilde, Freud to Foucault. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991.
• Dowling, Linda. Hellenism and Homosexuality in Victorian Oxford. Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1994.
• Ellis, Havelock. The Psychology of Sex. London: W. Heinemann, Medical Books, 1942.
• Foucault, Michel. Discipline and Punish. Trans. Alan Sheridan. New York: Random House, 1979.
• __________. The History of Sexuality. Vols. 1-3. Trans. Robert Hurley. New York: Random House, 1980.
• Freud, Sigmund. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. Trans. James Strachey. New York: Liveright, 1950.
• __________. Civilization and Its Discontents. Trans. James Strachey. New York: Norton, 1962 [1927].
• __________. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality. Trans. James Strachey. New York and London: London: Imago, 1949 [1907].
• __________. Totem and Taboo. Trans. A. A. Brill. New York: Random House, 1946 [1914].
• Kincaid, James. Child-Loving: The Erotic Child and Victorian Culture. New York and London: Routledge, 1992.
• Malinowski, Bronislaw. Sex and Repression in Savage Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1985 [1927].
• Marcus, Steven. The Other Victorians; a Study of Sexuality and Pornograhy in Mid-Nineteenth-Century England. New York: Basic, 1966.
• Mason, Michael. The Making of Victorian Sexual Attitudes. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1994.
• Sedgwick, Eve Kosofsky. Between Men: English Literature and Male Homosocial Desire. New York: Columbia University Press, 1985.
• __________. Epistemology of the Closet. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990.
• Sinfield, Alan. The Wilde Century: Effeminacy, Oscar Wilde, and the Queer Movement. London: Cassell, 1994.
• Sussman, Herbert. Victorian Masculinities: Manhood and Masculine Poetics in Early Victorian Literature and Art. Cambridge ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 1995.
• Weeks, Jeffrey. Against Nature: Essays on History, Sexuality, and Identity. London: Rivers Oram, 1991.
• __________. Sex, Politics, and Society: the Regulation of Sexuality Since 1800. London and New York: Longman, 1981.