ENGLISH 430/545

Victorian Masculinities

Summer I, 1999
Daily, 9:20-10:50
LL 103

Dan Bivona


LL 549B
Office Hours:
M, T, W, Th 2-3
and by appointment





Emily Bronte, Wuthering Heights. Bantam, 1981.
Oscar Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray. Oxford UP, 1982.
Rudyard Kipling, The Jungle Books. NAL, 1995.
Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality: An Introduction. Vintage, 1977.
These books are now available at the ASU Bookstore.

Course Overview:

This seminar will explore the complicated way in which some nineteenth-century writers attempted to construct and stabilize the concept of "masculinity" or "manliness." Necessarily, we will also explore a number of writers who dedicated themselves to disrupting and challenging these norms. The course title uses the plural, in other words, because this course is grounded in the assumption (an easy one to demonstrate) that Victorian culture generated a variety of different and often conflicting models of "manliness." Moreover, these models of manliness seem to play increasingly important roles in a wide variety of important social and cultural movements over the course of the century, from the emergence of a middle class patriarchy to the development of feminist consciousness to the creation of the Aestheticist movement. We will be reading many different types of texts -- poetry, prose, and novels; some written by men, some by women -- and will attempt to survey this topic in as much of its variety as we can within the time constraints.

Undergraduate Requirements (ENG 430):

2 critical papers should be 5-7 pages in length. Deadlines can be found on the syllabus below. There will be occasional quizzes (Topics for Paper #1; Topics for Paper #2)

Graduate Requirements (ENG 545):

3 critical papers (5-7 pages in length). Due dates TBA. (Topics for Paper #2).

A Note on Secondary Sources:

A supplemental reading list on Victorian masculinity can be found here.  A broader list of secondary sources on Victorian literature and culture can be found here. All required readings in the syllabus above can be found either in the books purchased for the course or on the Web through links supplied above.

Links to valuable indexes, bibliographies, databases, and other sources can be found on my web page.  For your papers you will likely wish to make use of the  MLA Bibliography, the  LITIR Victorian Database, and, for general information, the Encyclopedia Britannica.  You should also note that the Chadwyck Healey literary database is keyword searchable.

N.B. All students are expected to attend class regularly, to complete the readings before the day on which they are to be discussed, and to
contribute to class discussion which will constitute 20% of your grade.


N.B. Highlighted titles are available online. Required readings follow the date. Supplemental readings from the Web can be found in { } following the required readings.

T, 6/1: Introduction to the course.

W, 6/2: Carlyle's "The Dandiacal Body" et al. {Sartor Resartus}, Selections from Past and Present, and Gender Performativity

{Carlyle,On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History; Past and Present (1843)
 The Victorian WebBartleby; Don't Wait Until It's Too LateSocial Construction of Carlyle's New England Reputation, 1834-1836 }

Th, 6/3: Carlyle cont.

F, 6/4: Male Sentiment: Tennyson, In Memoriam

{On the Sentimental tradition: Edmund Burke,  "A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of Our Ideas of the Sublime and the Beautiful ; From the "Dictionary of Sensibility," see:  sympathycompassion/pitycharacter}

M, 6/7: Tennyson cont.

T, 6/8: Wolfish Man, Part 1: Emily Brontë,Wuthering Heights

{Wolfish Man; Emily Brontë; Wuthering Heights; Filth and Class; The Supposed Excessive Sexuality of Lower Classes and Tribal Cultures; Emily Jane Brontë ; The Emily Bronte Page; The Speech of Aristophanes from Plato's Symposium}

W, 6/9: Bronte cont.

Th, 6/10: Bronte cont.

F, 6/11: Bronte cont.

M, 6/14: Kingsley and Newman:   A Correspondence on the Question "Whether Dr. Newman teaches that Truth is no Virtue?"; Charles Kingsley:  "What then does Dr. Newman mean?"; John Henry Newman:  "Answer in Detail to Mr. Kingsley's Accusations," Appendix to Apologia (1864). The Definition of the Gentleman from Newman's Idea of the University.

{Muscular Christianity; Christian Socialism; Heroic Asceticism; F. D. Maurice; Charles Kingsley; Charles Kingsley as Christian Socialist; Tom Brown's Schooldays; Thomas Hughes; Newman Links; John Henry Newman; his earnest preaching; Newman on the Gentleman; Victorian Web on the Apologia pro Vita Sua; Apologia pro Vita Sua (1864 text)}

T, 6/15: Kingsley/Newman cont.

W, 6/16: Aesthetic Man: Swinburne, Pater, and the Rossettis. Swinburne:  "Hymn to Proserpine" ; Pater:  "The Child in the House""Conclusion" to The Renaissance:  A Study"Aesthetic Poetry" ; D. G. Rossetti:   "Jenny" ; Christina Rossetti:  "In An Artist's Studio". Buchanan:  "The Fleshly School of Poetry".   Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Part I (pp. 1-73).

{Walter Pater, "Style" (1888); The Rossetti Archive; Aesthetes and Aestheticism; Algernon Charles Swinburne; Shipwrecked and Cast Away in the Sea of Time; Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; Pre-Raphaelitism in Poetry; Christina Rossetti;

Art, Nature, Artifice, Simulacra:  Walter Benjamin, "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" ; The Baudrillard Project; Donna Haraway, "A Cyborg Manifesto" ; Victor Margolin, "The Politics of the Artificial" }

Th, 6/17: Aestheticism cont. First critical paper due. Topics.

F, 6/18: Aestheticism cont.

M, 6/21: Aestheticism cont.

T, 6/22: Closeted Man: Wilde, The Picture of Dorian Gray; "The Portrait of Mr. W. H."; Symonds, "A Problem in Greek Ethics" (John Addington Symonds Pages)Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Part I (pp. 77-159).

{Rictor Norton's Essays on Gay History and Sexuality; Oscar Wilde: The Complete Shorter Fiction & Poems in Prose; John Addington Symonds; Edward Carpenter; Havelock Ellis; Aesthetes and Decadents; Arthur Symons; Other Artists Associated with the Aesthetic and Decadent Movement(s); The 1885 Criminal Law Amendment; Edward Carpenter, The Intermediate Sex}

W, 6/23: Wilde et al. cont.

Th, 6/24: Wilde et al. cont.

F, 6/25: Wilde et al. cont.

M, 6/28: Wolfish Man, Part 2: Kipling, The Jungle Books (The Mowgli stories only)

{Rudyard Kipling}

T, 6/29: Kipling cont.

W, 6/30: Kipling cont.

Th, 7/1: Kipling cont.

F, 7/2: Kipling cont. Second critical paper due. Topics.

N.B. This syllabus is subject to change up through the 11th hour.