UNIT & LESSON PLAN GUIDELINES
SUMMARIZE THE ORIGINAL LESSON; DO NOT INCLUDE COOPERATING TEACHER HANDOUTS
REVISE THE LESSON. MAKE IT DIFFERENT & MORE COMPREHENSIVE. If it is simple, make it more interesting. Go beyond mere ruler measurement.
PROOFREAD AND ORGANIZE YOUR MATERIALS USING MY HEADINGS--WHICH ARE CATEGORIES THAT THE STATE INCLUDES IN ITS STANDARDS.
ADD DEFINITIONS OF MAJOR STUDIO CONCEPTS
USE THESE CATEGORY HEADINGS TO SHOW EVIDENCE OF MEETING THESE STATE STANDARDS.
ADD PAGE NUMBERS to references
NO MORE THAN 20 PAGES. PUT IN SOFT COVER FOLDER.
NO INTERNET ARTICLES. YOU MUST WRITE THE LESSON OUT
ORIGINAL LESSON PLAN
The OLD nine-week drawing unit concentrated on portrait drawing and abstraction done in pen and ink. Instructions: "Choose three photographic portraits, either black and white or color, of celebrities or normal people."
MY ADDITIONS: I added art criticism, art in context, and aesthetic components.
REVISED LESSON MODEL
TITLE: PICASSO, PORTRAITS, & PERSPECTIVES
Unit Overview: Students learn about Picasso and the importance of Cubism as a way to change perspectives. They analyze how he abstracted forms, changed viewpoints, arranged the picture through a grid system, and added symbols. Students make their own portrait grid drawing demonstrating their understanding of the grid and changing perspectives, and adding symbols.
GOAL: To introduce Cubist and Abstract Art: Purpose, influences, perspectives, spatial qualities, context and effects on other arts. The Curriculum is subject-centered. Students can also choose subject matter to express their concerns, so the curriculum is also child-centered (individual self-expression). Dewey advocated a balance of both. Arizona and State Standards are based on subject-centered approach using performance assessments and rubrics. Global Awareness Comparisons are included.
Unit Performance Objectives: Students will:
ART AS INQUIRY ACTIVITY: Be an art critic and develop your critical thinking skills. Answer the following questions about Picasso's Guernica (1937) in paragraphs (10 points).
ART CRITICISM ASSESSMENT TOOL (SCORING RUBRIC or RATING SCALE) & CRITERIA
CREATING ART ACTIVITY: Make a Cubist Portrait Drawing with Grid Composition and Multiple Views, similar to Picasso's. A portrait drawing is a process of capturing an image likeness or its feeling.
Previous lesson: Make a traditional realistic drawing in pencil, using correct proportion, composition (fill the frame), and shading (four different lights and darks). Monochromatic painting or design using shades of gray is called grisaille.
Materials: Student journal to plan the grid and difference views, tracing paper to enlarge the plan, lead pencil to transfer drawing to large bond paper (18 x 24"), black and white 2B pencil or marker pens. Alternate: Try the computer with a scanned photo
CREATING ART ASSESSMENT TOOL (SCORING RUBRIC or RATING SCALE) & CRITERIA
Authentic assessments use rubrics to describe student achievement. A rubric is a scoring tool that lists the criteria for a piece of work or "what counts"; it also determines gradations of quality for each criterion from excellent to poor" [no dictionary definition of rubric] (Goodrich, 1996. p. 14).
Make an abstract portrait drawing. Abstract means to simplify, to flatten, and to select a segment .
Plan a grid composition, a drawing made of repeated but unequal shapes or spaces that shows multiple views.
Communicates two or more related symbols. A symbol is a visual image that stands for something else; e.g. the horse is a symbol of bravery. The symbols should convey the person's feeling or character.
AESTHETICS ACTIVITY: Essay "What Makes a Masterpiece?" Discuss in 2 paragraphs the following: [Use the 4 theories of art]
The dictionary defines masterpiece as "An outstanding work of art or craft or something superlative, the highest quality. One critic has said, "A masterpiece expresses what (emotions and symbols) is universal, timeless and meaningful for all people. It does so by using the media of choice to its very fullest, and in doing so, creates new [formal] relationships and show us something we have not seen or felt before." What formal qualities fit the art critic's definition here. Maybe the artwork has a unique function or place in the artworld? Or does it represent life [realistically or abstractly]? Why or why not is Picasso's painting, Guernica, a masterpiece? Give evidence or examples.
AESTHETICS RUBRIC (10 points)
ART IN CONTEXT ACTIVITY: Be an art historian and interview your artist.
Art in Context: Assessment (10 points)
MODEL INTERVIEW: PICASSO AND CUBISM
WHERE AND WHEN: Picasso was born in Malaga, Spain (Place) in 1881 and moved with his family to Barcelona, where his father taught at School of Fine Arts. Although Picasso lived two-thirds of his life in France, he still considered himself Spanish, especially in his moods of "sun and shade" (p. 11).
EARLY INFLUENCES: The son of an art teacher, as a boy, Picasso loved to draw pigeons (symbol of peace) and he made this drawing at age 11 (p. 10). At age 14, he made his realistic first portrait Girl with Bare Feet (1895) (p. 17). He was influenced by Impressionists & Expressionists. Similar to these artists, he choose the subject of "city life," especially people (p. 16). Although a fine draftsman, he was attracted to the grotesque style (exaggerated real), such as his love of bullfights (theme).
CONTEXT or PERIOD--Other Historical Events at the time: Barcelona, at the crossroads of East and West and on the Mediterranean, was an independent municipality, prosperous, and full of art. The 1890s was a time of modernismo - style, an intellectual movement that rejected materialism as a result of increased industrialism (p. 12). The works of the philosophers Nietzsche and Schopenhauer influenced him. The Barcelonian Catalans, who had their own dialect, grew independent and wanted to succeed from Madrid and the rest of Spain. Picasso always regarded Barcelona as his true home.
His work was affected by European cultural factors (Politics---nihilism of war) and aesthetic values (experiments with pure form and simultaneous views). He was devoted to Communism (p. 149). The French Communist Party in 1949 adopted his "dove" symbol that he used earlier in a Milanese pigeon poster (p. 150).
STYLE CHANGE: Picasso's work changed from his father's influence and used more expressive characteristics. Picasso imitated Daumier's style at this point of his career. He used "real-life subjects, gestural lines, rough brush work, heavy outlines, and muddy colors" (p. 19). Picasso then moved to France (1900). In Paris, his style changed dramatically. Picasso wanted to portray a new way of seeing something from all sides. He invented Cubism, a style of abstract or simplified shapes (p. 53), inspired partly by African masks and sculptures that were displayed in the Louvre Museum and partly by Cezanne. Cezanne emphasized "solid form and experimented with flattened perspective and equal emphasis of positive and negative space" (Day, 1987, p. 235). Picasso ignored normal perspective and spatial relations, used simultanous views, and exaggerated monster faces (p. 54).
TOOLS & MEDIA: Picasso's main materials were traditional paper & pencil, oil & canvas, and scrap collage & assemblage. He added textures (newspaper) and imitated (wood & fabric) them (p. 94). Later, he worked in clay [ceramics] and lithography.
EMPHASIS ON ONE ARTWORK--THE-GUERNICA.His greatest work was the Guernica (1937, DATE) that he designed with 45 sketches (p. 136). This work is painted in oils on canvas [p. 137-138].
* SUBJECT MATTER included sun, horse, bull, and fighting and fallen people.
*THEME: The painting, perhaps the greatest antiwar art statement (holocaust) reacted to the horrible bombing of the Spanish village of Guernica. The painting (12' x 26') epitomized the role of art as the communication of ideas and social protest.
* COLOR HARMONY: He painted in black, white, and gray, a monochromatic grisaille.
*COMPOSITION was unified with triangular shapes and diagonal lines (Arnheim, 1962).
* STYLE: Whereas Picasso could draw realistically and shade well, he simplified [ABSTRACTED] forms, introduced more contrast (extreme lights and darks), reversed positive and negative areas, and used more patterns in theGuernica,. This painting is CUBISTIC.
*TECHNIQUE was flattened shapes with some shading in oil here.
* SYMBOLS of the dying horse (bravery) and bull (brutality & darkness) all represent Spain. The painting commemorated the 1936 rebellion of Spanish Morocco in the town of Guernica in the north. It was bombed by German planes prior to W.W.II. His painting WomanWeeping (1937), inspired by his mistress Dora Maar, also shows grief and rage against this bloody civil war.
* MOOD:The colors convey this sad and ghastly occasion.
GLOBAL COMPARISON: NONWESTERN: Wilfredo Lam of Afro-Cuban and Chinese descent was born in idyllic Cuba. He studied African Art in Paris at age 21 but the Nazis sent him back after a stay a prison camp in Martinique. His masterpiece, The Jungle, which he painted in 1943, is gouache on paper. It is similar in size and content to Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. Lam also painted faces, based on African masks, but his paintings are denser. Fascinated by the santeriaa and voodoo world, Lam's work celebrates a mythical beast-woman who creates and devastates in nature (Benton & DiYanni, 1999). Also see Romare Bearden. INCLUDE A PICTURE OF THIS GLOBAL WORK and a short description.
ART & SCIENCE: He stripped subjects of details, suggested flat planes, and reduced forms to blocks and cylinders. Cubism was an intellectual pursuit that followed such trends as "Einstein's theory of relativity that was a concern for time, space, and multiple views" (Day, 1987, p. 235). Cubism broke forms & traditions and reduced them to lowest terms (science atoms).
THEATER ARTS: Besides influencing painters, Picasso affected other careers: sculptors, costume designers, and graphic designers. As a designer, he influenced different compositions (such as a grid) and ways of seeing (simultaneous front and side views). Picasso made cubistic costumes for an avant-garde ballet called Parade. He painted the curtain similar to a circus poster (p. 76). He also designed & painted pottery (p. 176).
Wertenbaker. L. & Editors of Time-Life Books (1967). The world of Picasso (1881-1973). New York: Time-Life Books.
Clergue, L. (Dir.). (1970). Picasso, war, peace, love [video recording]. Universal Education and the Visual Arts. Indianapolis, IN
Arnheim, R. (1962). The genesis of a painting: Picasso's Guernica. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
[See Student Pottery inspired by Picasso's Cubist style.]
Evaluation: Informal Quiz (or crossword puzzle)
Where did Picasso consider his home?
Who taught him how to paint?
When did Picasso live?
What are his famous themes and favorite subject matter for painting?
What was his most famous masterpiece? Why is it famous?
What art style did he make famous? Explain the characteristics.
How did he design [composition] the Guernica?
How did he paint this work? [tools, medium, flatly or modeled]?
What other art forms did he master and influence?
Why did his style change?
What were his political views and affiliations?
Art Education References
Benton, Janetta Rebold, & DiYanni, Robert. (1999). Arts and culture: An introduction to the humanities. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Day, M. (1987). Discipline-based art education in secondary classrooms. Studies in Art Education, 28 (4), 234-242. [This was an experimental study of integrated teaching (DBAE style) types of Cubism founded by Cezanne to eight graders in (for 8 weeks for 40 hours of class time). Students' attitudes changed positively (respect for art style); they maintained interest throughout; quality of painting improved; and technical knowledge extended.]