This section includes source of evidence (research tool) and the naturalistic finding (limited to 4 sites).


What did Students Learn?


On Post-Questionnaires?

* to solve technical problems

* to identify cultural aspects (ways of believing and living, religion)

architecture is building houses


From Final Presentations:

* cultural aspects (hunters & gatherers, grew corn,

* describing structural (cross layering was the hardest part) and collaborative problems


From My Everyday Observations?

* perceptual differences about clay material (plasticity) and construction (repetition, balance, proportion as in making men).

* planning together takes negotiation

* making tiny artifacts (ladders, bows and arrows)

How Do They Learn to Work Cooperatively?

* In the beginning, students tend to use easy solutions, imitate the models (the familiar is starting place), and finally solve problems through trial and error.

* They move from general to specific knowledge in the Stage of Dawning Realism. They want things to look as realistic as possible.

* Not everyone will work well and contribute. Some students would rather work alone.

* These are not optimal conditions to learn cooperatively.


How to Improve Learning?

* More time, at least 4 weeks to work together, keep rapid pace.

* Clear objectives and steps for building a house

* Smaller groups, more choice of structure or materials, heterogeneous grouping to spread out troublesome students, and students' opinions for making class better.


What Did Instructors Learn?

In teaching exploratory art criticism can be a useful pretest, motivational and self evaluation device. Try asking the storytelling scenario: What is this place?

* Include more small props in models to stimulate curiosity.

* Three dimensional models may be more effective than two dimensional ones.

* Divide the art criticism encounters on separate days to reinforce learning.


In teaching cultural understanding, learning about the context is very important. For example, using local materials [from the river] and the structural problems [how to enter the house--through the roof].

* facilitating tribal role playing (naming their tribe and marking their faces) appeals to these students.

* They loved visiting the museums (to understand how people prepared food, crafts,

* Too many videos may interfere with learning.


In-process appraisal of individual and small group monitoring is still important. Students were amazed when the instructor blew off their roof.