Silver, Ag+

Most common oxidation state: +1

M.P. 961o

B.P. 2210o

Density 10.49 g/cm3

Characteristics: An inactive metal. It will react with hot concentrated H2SO4, with HNO3, and with aqua regia.

Characteristic reactions of Ag+:

Chloride Ion:

Soluble chlorides, such as hydrochloric acid, precipitate silver ion as white silver(I) chloride.

Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) <==> AgCl(s)

Silver(I) chloride is insoluble in acids, including HNO3. The precipitate does dissolve in aqueous ammonia:

AgCl(s) + 2NH3(aq) <==> [Ag(NH3)2]+(aq) + Cl-(aq)

Addition of an acid to this solution, such as HNO3, destroys the complex ion and re-precipitates silver(I) chloride:

[Ag(NH3)2]+(aq) + Cl-(aq) + 2H+(aq) <==> AgCl(s) + 2NH4+(aq) 

Sulfate Ion:

No reaction occurs on addition of sulfate ion unless the concentration of Ag+ is high, in which case silver(I) sulfate precipitates.

Aqueous Ammonia:

Aqueous ammonia precipitates brown Ag2O:

2Ag+(aq) + 2NH3(aq) + 2H2O(l) <==> Ag2O(s) + 2NH4+(aq) + H2O(l)

The silver(I) oxide precipitate dissolves in excess ammonia to form a colorless complex ion:

Ag2O(s) + 4NH3(aq) + H2O(l) <==> 2[Ag(NH3)2]+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) 

Sodium Hydroxide:

Sodium hydroxide precipitates silver(I) oxide:

2Ag+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) <==> Ag2O(s) + H2O(l)

Silver(I) oxide does not dissolve in excess NaOH.

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