The Kopprasch Zone--The Natural Horn--The Early Valved Horn

Octave Designation System Used in These Articles

The octave designation system of pitches used in Horn Articles Online is the system preferred by The New Harvard Dictionary of Music (edited by Don Randel, 1986), as follows:

 Octave Designation System--middle c is c'; working down by octave each c is notated as c, C, and C1, working up from middle c you read the notes as c'', c''', c''''

Unless otherwise noted, all pitches refer to written rather than concert pitch.

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