The Rhetorical Triangle
LOGOS (idea, message)
PATHOS (force, emotion) ETHOS (form, manner)

Every communication is essentially a trilateral relationship.  Each point of the triangle

influences the others, and all are influenced by the context of the communication.  Each point

of the triangle bears some responsibility for the success of the communication, and each

point of the triangle corresponds with one of Aristotle's three appeals (i.e., general means of persuasion). 

Rational Appeals (logos)
Emotional Appeals (pathos)
Ethical Appeals (ethos)

appeal to logical reasoning ability of readers

  • facts
  • case studies
  • statistics
  • experiments
  • logical reasoning
  • analogies
  • anecdotes
  • authority voices

appeal to beliefs and feelings
higher emotions

  • belief in fairness
  • love
  • pity
  • etc.

lower emotions

  • greed
  • lust
  • revenge
  • avarious
  • etc.

sense you (author) gives as being compentent/fair/authority

  • trustworthiness
  • credibility
  • reliablity
  • expert testimony
  • reliable sources
  • fairness

    Think of how one speaks to an opponent: For example on the floor of the Senate in hearted debate the speaker would refer to "My honorable opponent." This is why one refers to the "manner of delivery."