Table: Seminal papers used to retrieve papers for the three knowledge domains based on cited reference search




Holling (1973, 1986)

May (1977)

Ludwig et al. (1978)

Timmerman (1981)

Walker et al. (1981)

Pimm (1984)

Gunderson et al. (1995)

Berkes and Folke (1998)

Adger (2000)

Scheffer et al. (2001)

Gunderson and Holling (2002)

Berkes et al. (2003)

White and Haas (1975)

Burton et al. (1978)

Sen (1981)

Timmerman (1981)

Clark (1985)

Chambers (1989)

Swift (1989)

Dow (1992)

Liverman (1990)

Watts and Bohle (1993)

Bohle et al. (1994)

Blaikie et al. (1994)

Kasperson et al., (1995)

Cutter (1996)

Ribot et al. (1996)

Watson et al. (1996, 1998)

Hewitt (1997)

Adger (1999)

Klein and Nicholls (1999)

Watson et al. (1996, 1998)

McCarthy et al. (2000)

Kates et al. (2001)

Rappaport2 (1968, 1976)

Butzer (1980)

Timmerman (1981)

Rosenberg (1992)

Easterling (1996)

Smit et al. (1996, 2000)

Watson et al. (1996)

Smithers and Smit (1997)

Smit et al. (1999)

Tol et al. (1998)

McCarthy et al. (2001)


Adger, W.N. (1999) Social Vulnerability to Climate Change and Extremes in Coastal Vietnam. World Development 27(2), 249-269. 

Adger, W.N. (2000) Social and Ecological Resilience: Are They Related? Progress in Human Geography 24(3), 347-364.

Berkes, F., Colding, J. and Folke, C. (eds.) (2003) Navigating Social-ecological Systems: Building Resilience for Complexity and Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Berkes, F. and Folke, C. (eds.) (1998) Linking Social and Ecological Systems:  Management Practices and Social Mechanisms for Building Resilience. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., Davis, I. and Wisner, B. (1994) At Risk:  Natural Hazards, People’s Vulnerability, and Disasters.  New York, NY:  Routledge.

Bohle, H.-G., Downing, T.E. and Watts, M.J. (1994) Climate Change and Social Vulnerability – Toward a Sociology and Geography of Food Insecurity. Global Environmental Change 4 (1), 37-48.

Burton, I., Kates, R.W. and White, G.F. (1978) The Environment as Hazard.  New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Butzer, K.W. (1980) Adaptation to Global Environmental Change. Professional Geographer 32 (3), 269-278.

Chambers, R. (1989) Vulnerability, Coping and Policy - Introduction. IDS Bulletin – Institute of Development Studies 20(2), 1-7. 

Clark, W.C. (1985) Scales of Climate Impacts. Climatic Change 7(1), 5-27. 

Cutter, S.L. (1996) Vulnerability to Environmental Hazards. Progress in Human Geography 20(4), 529-539.

Dow, K. (1992) Exploring Differences in Our Common Future(s) – The Meaning of Vulnerability to Global Environmental Change. Geoforum 23(3), 417-436.

Easterling, W.E. (1996), Adapting North American Agriculture to Climate Change in Review. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 80(1), 1-53.

Gunderson, L.H., Holling, C.S. and Light, S.S. (eds.) (1995) Barriers and Bridges to the Renewal of Ecosystems and Institutions, Columbia University Press, New York, NY. 

Gunderson, L.H. and Holling, C.S. (eds.) (2002) Panarchy: Understanding Transformations in Human and Natural Systems. Island Press.

Hewitt, K. (1997) Regions of Risk: A Geographical Introduction to Disasters. Addison Wesley Longman, New York, NY. 

Holling, C.S. (1973) Resilience and Stability of Ecological Systems. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4, 1-23.

Holling, C.S. (1986) The Resilience of Terrestrial Ecosystems:  Local Surprise and Global Change. In Sustainable Development o f the Biosphere, edited by W.C. Clark and R.E. Munn. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK.

Kasperson, J.X, Kasperson, R.E. and Turner II, B.L. (1995) Regions at Risk, United Nations Press, New York, NY.

Kates, R.W., Clark, W.C., Corell, R., Hall, J.M., Jaeger, C.C., Lowe, I., McCarthy, J.J.,  Schellnhuber, H.J., Bolin, B., Dickson, N.M., Faucheux, S., Gallopin, G.C., Grubler, A.,  Huntley, B., Jager, J., Jodha, N.S., Kasperson, R.E., Mabogunje, A., Matson, P. and Mooney, H. (2001) Environment and Development – Sustainability Science.  Science 292 (5517), 641-642.

Klein, R.J.T. and Nicholls, R.J. (1999) Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Climate Change.  Ambio 28(2), 182-187. 

Liverman, D.M. (1990) Vulnerability to Global Environmental Change. In Understanding Global Environmental Change: The Contributions of Risk Analysis and Management, edited by R.E. Kasperson, D.G. Dow and J.X. Kasperson. Worchester, MA: Clark University. 

Ludwig, D., Jones, D.D. and Holling, C.S. (1978) Qualitative-Analysis of Insect Outbreak Systems – Spruce Budworm and Forest. Journal of Animal Ecology 47(1), 315-332.

May, R.M. (1977) Thresholds and Breakpoints in Ecosystems with a Multiplicity of Stable States. Nature 269, 471-477.

McCarthy, J.J. Canziani, OF, Leary, N.A., Dokken, D.J. and White, K.S. (eds.) (2001) Climate Change 2001:  Impacts, Adaptation, Vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Pimm, S.L. (1984) The Complexity and Stability of Ecosystems. Nature 307(26), 321-326. 

Rappaport, R.A. (1967) Pigs for the Ancestors, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press

Rappaport, R.A. (1977) Maladaptation in social systems. Pages 49-71 in J. Friedman, editor. Evolution of social systems. Duckworth, London, UK.

Ribot, J.C., Magalhães, A.R., and Panagides S.S. (1996) Climate Variability, Climate Change and Social Vulnerability in the Semi-arid Tropics. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.

Rosenberg, N.J. 1992. Adaptation of Agriculture to Climate Change. Climatic Change 21 (4):385-405.

Scheffer, M. Carpenter, S.R., Foley, J.A., Folke, C. and Walker, B.H. (2001) Catastrophic Shifts in Ecosystems. Nature 413, 591-596.

Sen, A. (1981) Famines and Poverty. Oxford University Press, London.

Smit, B., Burton, I., Klein, R.J.T. and Street R. (1999) The Science of Adaptation: a framework for assessment, Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change 4(3-4), 199-213.

Smit, B, Burton, I., Klein, R.J.T. and Wandel J. (2000) An Anatomy of Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability. Climatic Change 45 (1), 223-251.

Smit, B, McNabb, D. and Smithers, J. (1996) Agricultural Adaptation to Climatic Variation. Climatic Change 33(1), 7-29.

Smith, J.B. and Lenhart, S.S. (1996) Climate change adaptation policy options. Climate Research 6(2), 193-201.

Smithers, J. and Smit, B. (1997) Human Adaptation to Climatic Variability and Change. Global Environmental Change 7(2), 129-146.

Swift, J. (1989) Why Are Rural People Vulnerable to Famine. IDS Bulletin – Institute of Development Studies 20(2), 8-15.

Timmerman, P. (1981) Vulnerability, Resilience and the Collapse of Society. Environmental Monograph 1, Institute for Environmental Studies, Toronto University,

Tol, R.S.J., Fankhauser, S. and Smith, J.B. (1998) The scope for adaptation to climate change: what can we learn from the impact literature? Global Environmental Change 8(2), 109-123.

Walker, B.H., Ludwig, D., Holling, C.S. and Peterman, R.M. (1981) Stability of Semi-Arid Savanna Grazing Systems. Journal of Ecology 69(2), 473-498.

Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C. and Moss, R.H. (eds.) (1996) Climate Change 1995:  Impacts, Adaptations, and Mitigation of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Watson, R.T., Zinyowera, M.C. and Moss, R.H. (eds.) (1998) The regional impacts of climate change: an assessment of vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Watts, M.J. and Bohle, H.G. (1993) The Space of Vulnerability – The Causal-Structure of Hunger and Famine. Progress in Human Geography 17(1), 43-67. 

Westoby, M., Walker, B.H. and Noymeir, I. (1989) Opportunistic Management for Rangelands not at Equilibrium. Journal of Range Management 42(4), 266-274.

White, G.F. and Haas, J.E. (1975) Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.