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This can be used to stack something above something else; used in math mode.

The first argument, top, is typset immediately above the second argument, bot; the former is set in the same math style as a superscript.

For example

  H$_2$CO$_3$ $\stackrel{\rm heat}
     {\longrightarrow}$ H$_2$O + CO$_2$
will produce something like

  H CO   ------>  H O  +  CO 
   2  3            2        2
Note that the the \rm declaration is used so that "heat" is set in Roman face and not math italics.

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a name="mathop">\mathop

This command does not seem to be well documented but appears to work, at least in current versions of LaTeX 2.09.

The argument is considered to be a single variable sized math symbol for purposes of placing limits below (subscripts) and above (superscripts) in display math style. For example,

  \mathop{\sum \sum}_{i,j=1}^{N} a_i a_j
would produce something like
         ---  ---
         \    \    
         /    /    a  a
         ---  ---   i  j
It is possible to create two rows of "subscripts" by using a similar construction: The first row is created as subscripts of the symbol in the usual way and a lower row is created by placing this whole construct as the argument of a \mathop command with its own subscript. For example
would produce something like

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Revised: Sheldon Green, 15 Aug 1995.