PHY131 HOMEWORK PROBLEMS 2011 JULY 29 - AUG 4 UNIT 4 1. An electric field points into the page and occupies a circular region of radius 1.0 m. There is a magnetic field forming circular closed loops centered on the circular region and pointing clockwise. The magnetic field strength 50 cm from the center of the region is 2.0 microT. (a) What is the rate of change of the electric field? (b) Is the electric field increasing or decreasing? 2. The figure for this problem is here. Switch S is closed at time t=0 with no charge initially on the capacitor. (a) What is the reading of each meter just after S is closed? (b) What does each meter read long after S is closed? (c) What is the maximum charge on the capacitor and when does it occur? Here is a pdf version of the same figure. 3. Suppose that a parallel-plate capacitor has circular plates with radius R = 30 mm and a plate separation of 5.0 mm. Suppose also that sinusoidal potential difference with a maximum value of 150 V and a frequency of 60 Hz is applied across the plates; that is V = (150 V)sin[2pi(60 Hz)t]. (a) Find B_max(R), the maximum value of the induced magnetic field that occurs at r = R. (b) Plot B_max(r) for 0 < r < 10 cm. 4. A capacitor with parallel circular plates of radius R is discharging via a current of 12.0 A. Consider a loop of radius R/3 that is centered on the central axis between the plates. (a) How much displacement current is encircled by the loop? The maximum induced magnetic field has a magnitude of 12.0 mT. (b) At what radial distance, or distances, from the central axis of the plate is the magnitude of the induced magnetic field 3.00 mT? 5. Show how to use Kirchhoff's loop rule (write a clear and concise explanation for each term) to find a differential equation which can be solved for Q(t), the charge as a function of time, on a discharging capacitor. The figure for this problem is Fig. 26.23 (page 898), with an initial charge of Q_0 on capacitor C when the switch is closed at t = 0. Let positive current represent a charging capacitor, i.e. i(t) = (dQ/dt). Show BY DIRECT SUBSTITUTION that Q(t) = (Q_0)e^(-t/RC) is a solution of your differential equation. 6. An initially uncharged capacitor C is fully charged by a device of constant EMF in series with a resistor R. (a) Show that the final energy stored in the capacitor is half the energy supplied by the EMF device. (b) By direct integration of (i^2)R over the charging time, show that the thermal energy dissipated by the resistor is also half the energy supplied by the EMF device. 7. A coil with an inductance of 2.0 H and a resistance of 10 Ohms is suddenly connected to a resistanceless battery with EMF = 100 V. At 0.10 s after the connection is made, what are the rates at which (a) energy is being stored in the magnetic field, (b) thermal energy is appearing in the resistance, and (c) energy is being delivered by the battery? 8. The figure for this problem is Figure 30.11 on page 1041 with EMF = 10.0 V, R = 6.70 Ohms, and L = 5.50 H. With S2 open, S1 was closed at time t = 0. (a) How much energy is delivered by the battery during the first 2.00 s? (b) How much of this energy is stored in the magnetic field of the inductor? (c) How much of this energy is dissipated in the resistor? 9. The figure for this problem is Fig. 30.11. After being closed for a long time, S1 is suddenly opened while, at the same instant, S2 is suddenly closed. Show how to use Kirchhoff's loop rule to find the differential equation which can be solved for the resulting I(t), and show that I(t) = (EMF/R)e^(-tR/L) is a solution of that differential equation. 10. The figure for this problem is here. The capacitor is originally uncharged. The switch starts in the open position and is then flipped to position 1 for 0.500 s. It is then flipped to position 2 and left there. (a) If the resistance r is very small, what is the upper limit for the amount of charge the capacitor could receive? (b) Even if r is very small, how much electrical energy will be dissipated in it? (c) Sketch a graph showing the reading of the ammeter as a function of time after the switch is in position 2, assuming that r is very small and that current from left to right through the ammeter is positive. (d) Sketch a graph showing the charge on the right-hand plate of the capacitor as a function of time after the switch is in position 2, assuming that r is very small. Here is a pdf version of the same figure. 11. An LC circuit has an inductance of 0.360 H and a capacitance of 0.280 nF. During the current oscillations, the maximum current in the inductor is 1.50 A. (a) What is the maximum energy stored in the capacitor at any time during the current oscillations? (b) How many times per second does the capacitor contain the amount of energy found in part A? (c) At an instant in time when the current in the inductor is 0.75 A, what is the amount of energy stored in the capacitor? (d) If the cycle begins (t=0) when the maximum energy is stored in the capacitor, when is the first instant in time that the energy stored in the capacitor is equal to the energy stored in the inductor? (e) What is the current in the inductor at the instant referred to in part (d)? 12. The frequency of oscillation of a certain LC circuit is 200 kHz. At time t = 0, plate A of the capacitor has maximum positive charge. At what times t > 0 will (a) plate A again have maximum positive charge, (b) the other plate of the capacitor have maximum positive charge, and (c) the inductor have maximum magnetic field? 13. In an oscillating LC circuit in which C = 4.00 microF, the maximum potential difference across the capacitor during the oscillations is 1.50 V and the maximum current through the inductor is 50.0 mA. (a) What is the inductance L? (b) What is the frequency of the oscillations? (c) How much time is required for the charge on the capacitor to rise from zero to its maximum value? 14. An AC generator has EMF = (EMF_max)sin((w_d)t); it is connected to an inductor of inductance L. (a) Write Kirchhoff's Loop Rule for this circuit at a particular instant of time. (b) Find the current as a function of time. Hint: the result of (a) should be a simple differential equation that can be solved easily by integration. In this case, it is simplest to use indefinite integration (antiderivatives); eliminate the possible constant by an argument that the current should be purely AC, with no DC contribution. Now assume EMF_max = 25.0 V, w_d = 377 rad/s (w stands for omega), and L=12.7 H. (c) What is the maximum value of the current? (d) When the current is a maximum, what is the EMF of the generator? (e) When the EMF of the generator is -12.5 V and increasing in magnitude, what is the current? (f) For the conditions of part (e), is the generator supplying or taking energy from the circuit? 15. The AC generator of problem 14 is connected to a capacitor of capacitance C. (a) Write Kirchhoff's Loop Rule for this circuit at a particular instant of time. Is your result a differential equation? (b) Find the current as a function of time. Now assume EMF_max = 25.0 V, w_d = 377 rad/s (w stands for omega), and C=4.15 microF. (c) What is the maximum value of the current? (d) When the current is a maximum, what is the EMF of the generator? (e) When the EMF of the generator is -12.5 V and increasing in magnitude, what is the current? (f) For the conditions of part (e), is the generator supplying or taking energy from the circuit? 16. A resistor of resitance R is connected to an AC generator with EMF(t)=(EMF_max)sin((w_d)t). (a) Write Kirchhoff's Loop Rule for this circuit at a particular instant of time. Is your result a differential equation? (b) Find the current as a function of time. Now assume R=50 Ohm and EMF_max = 30.0 V. (c) What is the amplitude of the resulting alternating current if the frequency of the EMF is 1.00 kHz and (d) if the frequency of the EMF is 8.00 kHz? 17. An AC generator with EMF_max = 220 V and operating at 400 Hz causes oscillations is a series RLC circuit having R = 220 Ohms, L = 150 mH, and C = 24.0 microF. Find (a) the capacitive reactance X_C, (b) the impedance Z, and (c) the current amplitude I. A second capacitor of the same capacitance is then connected in series with the other components. Determine the new values of (d) X_C, (e) Z, and (f) I and state whether those values increase, decrease, or remain the same. 18. In an L-R-C series circuit, the resistance is 380 ohms, the inductance is 0.400 henrys, and the capacitance is 0.0120 microfarads. (a) What is the resonance angular frequency of the circuit? (b) The capacitor can withstand a peak voltage of 570 volts. If the voltage source operates at the resonance frequency, what maximum voltage amplitude can the source have if the maximum capacitor voltage is not exceeded? 19. An AC voltmeter with large impedance is connected in turn across the inductor, the capacitor, and the resistor in a series circuit having an alternating EMF of 100 V (rms); it gives the same reading in volts in each case. What is the reading? (To get any credit for your answer to this problem, you must very carefully explain the logic that you used to obtain that answer.) 20. The figure for this problem is here. The figure shows voltage and current graphs for a series LRC circuit with a generator. The voltage curve first crosses the time axis at t=25 microseconds; the current curve first crosses the time axis at t=41.67 microseconds. (a) What is the resistance in the circuit? (b) If L=200 microH, what is the capacitance in the circuit? (c) What is the resonant angular frequency for the circuit? Here is a pdf version of the same figure. 21. A typical "light dimmer" used to dim the stage lights in a theater consists of a variable inductor L (the inductance of which is adjustable between zero and L_{max}) connected in series with a lightbulb (a lightbulb is a non-ohmic resistor, but assume it is ohmic for the purpose of this problem). The electrical supply for this series circuit is 120 V (rms) at 60.0 Hz; the lightbulb is rated as "120 V, 1000 W". (a) What L_{max} is required if the rate of energy dissipation in the lightbulb is to be varied by a factor of five from its upper limit of 1000 W? (b) Could one use a variable resistor (adjustable between zero and R_{max}) instead of an inductor? If so, what R_{max} is required? Why isn't this done? 22. You enjoy listening to KONG-FM, which broadcasts at 94.1 MHz. You destest listening to KRUD-FM, which broadcasts at 94.0 MHz. You live the same distance from both stations and both transmitters are equally powerful, so both radio signals produce the same 1.0 V source voltage as measured at your house. Your goal is to design an LRC radio circuit with the following properties: i) It gives the maximum power response to the signal from KONG-FM; ii) the average power delivered to the resistor in response to KRUD-FM is 1.00% of the average power in response to KONG-FM. This limits the power received from the unwanted station, making it inaudible. You are required to use an inductor with L = 1.00 microH. Find the capacitance C and effective resistance R that satisfy the design requirements. NOTE: To get R, you will need to save C in your calculator and use that saved answer; this is because R depends on the small DIFFERENCE between X_C and X_L, which magnifies any rounding error in X_C. GBA 23. An LRC series circuit with L=0.125 H, R=242 Ohms, and C=7.26 microF carries an RMS current of 0.452 A with a frequency of 402 Hz. (a) What is the phase constant? (b) What is the power factor? (c) What is the impedance of this circuit? (d) What is the RMS EMF of the source? (e) What is the average power delivered by the source? (f) What is the average rate at which electrical energy is converted to thermal energy in the resistor? (g) What is the average rate at which electrical energy is converted to other forms in the capacitor and in the inductor? (h) If the driving frequency were changed to the resonant frequency of this circuit, what would be the resulting RMS current (instead of 0.452 A)? (i) If the driving frequency were changed to the resonant frequency of this circuit, what would be the resulting average power delivered by the source (instead of your answer to part (e))? 24. A parallel-plate, air-filled capacitor has plates of area 0.00260 square meters. The magnitude of charge on each plate is 8.20 pC, and the potential difference between the plates is 2.40 V. What is the electric field energy density in the volume between the plates? 25. An air-filled toroidal solenoid has 600 turns and a mean radius of 6.90 cm. Each winding has a cross-sectional area of 0.0350 square cm. Assume that the magnetic field is uniform over the cross section of the windings. (a) When the current in the solenoid is 2.50 A, what is the magnetic field within the solenoid? (b) Calculate the energy density in the solenoid directly from the magnetic field strength. (c) What is the total volume enclosed by the windings? (d) Use the volume from part c and the energy density from part b to calculate the total energy stored in the solenoid. (e) Use the geometry of the solenoid to calculate its inductance. (f) Use 0.5LI^2 to calculate the energy stored in the solenoid. Compare your answer to what you obtained in part d. 26. A sinusoidal radio wave of frequency 1.0 MHz is traveling in the negative z direction. The electric field of the radio wave oscillates in the plus or minus y direction. The maximum electric field strength is 1000 V/m. What are (a) the maximum radiated magnetic field strength, (b) the radiated magnetic field strength and direction at a point where the radiated electric field is 500 V/m in the negative y direction, and (c) the smallest distance between a point on the wave having the magnetic field of part b and a point where the magnetic field is at maximum strength? 27. A satellite in geostationary orbit is used to transmit data via electromagnetic radiation. The satellite is at a height of 35000 km above the surface of the Earth, and we assume it has an isotropic power output of 4.00 kW (in practice, satellite antennas transmit signals that are less powerful but more directional). The satellite dish which will receive the signal sent from the satellite is located on the surface of the Earth directly below the satellite. (a) What is the intensity of the signal from the satellite at the location of the antenna? (b) What is the energy density of the electromagnetic radiation from the satellite which is being received by the antenna? (c) The satellite dish detects the variation in the radiated electric field from the satellite. What is the amplitude of the radiated electric field vector of the satellite broadcast at the location of the dish? Young and Freedman - 12th Ed - CHAPTER 31 36. Please add the following parts: (d) Assume the circuit elements are arranged as shown in Figure 31.25 on page 1088. What are the readings from voltmeters V4 and V5? Remember that AC meters give RMS values, not peak values. (e) If the circuit elements are not changed but the angular frequency of the source is changed to 645 rad/s, what are the readings on the five voltmeters, V1-V5? (f) Repeat part e. for 1245 rad/s. Young and Freedman - 12th Ed - CHAPTER 32 49. Hint for Problem 32.49: This is a Faraday's Law problem, but with a radiated B field that is varying sinusoidally (so you can write B(t) as Bmax*sin(omega*t) and differentiate to get the maximum value of dB/dt).