PUBLICATIONS (in chronological order; ‘*’ - indicates mentored students)

A Sridharan*, J Duncan and J Muthuswamy, "Mechanosensitive Ion Channels Contribute to Micromotion Induced Membrane Potential Changes in Cells at the Neural Interface In Vivo," Proceedings of 10th International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering (NER), 2021, pp. 621-624, doi: 10.1109/NER49283.2021.9441094, 2021.

J Duncan*, A Sridharan*, S Sampath Kumar*, D Iradukonda, J Muthuswamy, “Biomechanical micromotion at the neural interface modulates intracellular membrane potentials in vivo,” Journal of Neural Engineering, 18(4), doi: 10.1088/1741-2552/ac0a56, 2021. 

D Atkinson, T D'Souza, J Rajput, N Tasnim, J Muthuswamy, H Marvi,
J Pancrazio, “Advances in Implantable Microelectrode Array Insertion and Positioning,” Neuromodulation,, 2021.

A Sridharan* and J Muthuswamy, “Soft, conductive, brain-like coatings at tips of microelectrodes improve electrical stability under chronic in vivo conditions,” Micromachines, 12(7), 761;, 2021.

A Sridharan*, A Shah*, S Sampath Kumar*, J Kyeh*, J Smith, J Blain-Christen and J Muthuswamy, “Optogenetic modulation of cortical neurons using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” 6(2): 025003, Biomedical Physics & Engineering Express, 2020.

S Sampath Kumar*, M Baker, M Okandan and J Muthuswamy, “Engineering microscale systems for fully autonomous intracellular neural interfaces,” Microsystems and Nanoengineering, 6, 1 (2020). (a nature publishing group journal).

A Sridharan*, V Kodibagkar and J Muthuswamy, “Penetrating microindentation of hyper-soft, conductive silicone neural interfaces in vivo reveals significantly lower mechanical stresses,” MRS advances, 4(46-47):2551-2558, 2019.

M Khraiche*, J Rogul* and J Muthuswamy, “Design and Development of Microscale Thickness Shear Mode (TSM) Resonators for Sensing Neuronal Adhesion,” Frontiers in Neuroscience, 13:518, 2019, doi: 10.3389/fnins.2019.00518.

C. Miranda, S Sampath Kumar*, J Muthuswamy and B Smith, “Photoacoustic Micropippette,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113, 264103 (2018); (featured article)

A Sridharan*, S Chirania*, N Bennett*, B Towe and J Muthuswamy, “Remote Stimulation of Sciatic Nerve Using Cuff Electrodes and Implanted Diodes,” Micromachines, 9(11), 595;, 2018.

M Khraiche*, W Phillips*, N Jackson*, J Muthuswamy, “Sustained Elevation of Activity of Developing Neurons Grown on Polyimide Microelectrode Arrays (MEA) in Response to Ultrasound Exposure,” Microsystem Technologies, doi:10.1007/s00542-016-3150-6, 2016.

S Anand*, S Sampath Kumar*, J Muthuswamy, “Autonomous control for mechanically stable navigation of microscale implants in brain tissue to record neural activity,” Biomedical Microdevices, Aug;18(4):72, 2016.

J Smith, A Shah, Yong-Kyun Lee, B O'Brien, D Kullman, A Sridharan, J Muthuswamy, J B Christen “Optogenetic Neurostimulation of the Auricular Vagus using Flexible OLED Display Technology to Treat Chronic Inflammatory Disease and Mental Health Disorders, ” Electronics Letters, DOI: 10.1049/el.2015.3450, 2016.

T. Darling, J Muthuswamy, S Rajan, “Finite element modeling of human brain response to football helmet impacts,” Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, (13):1432-1442, 2016, DOI:10.1080/10255842.2016.1149574.

A Sridharan*, J Nguyen, J Capadona, J Muthuswamy, “Compliant Intracortical Implants Reduce Strains and Strain Rates in Brain Tissue In Vivo”, J Neural Eng. 12, doi:10.1088/1741-2560/12/3/036002 2015.

A Sridharan,* S Rajan and J Muthuswamy, “Long-term changes in the material properties of brain-tissue at the implant-tissue interface,” J Neural Eng, 10, 066001 doi:10.1088/1741-2560/10/6/066001 2013.

A Sridharan*, C Patel* and J Muthuswamy, “Voltage preconditioning allows modulated gene expression in neurons using PEI complexed siRNA,” Molecular Therapy – Nucleic acids, 2, e82; doi:10.1038/mtna.2013.102013 (a Nature group publication).

ML Khraiche* and J Muthuswamy, “Multi-modal biochip for simultaneous, real-time measurement of adhesion and electrical activity of neurons in culture,” Lab on Chip, 12, 2930-2941, 2012, DOI: 10.1039/c2lc40190h.

A. Sridharan* and J Muthuswamy, “BACE1 silencing using siRNA shows rapid, functional changes in cultured primary hippocampal neurons,” J Neurosci and Neuroengineering, vol. 2(6):491-503, 2013.

C Patel* and J Muthuswamy, High efficiency, Site-specific Transfection of Adherent Cells with siRNA Using Microelectrode Arrays (MEA). J. Vis. Exp. (67), e4415, doi:10.3791/4415 (2012). (

J Muthuswamy, S Anand*, A Sridharan*, “Adaptive movable neural interfaces for monitoring single neurons in the brain,” Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 5, article 94, 2011 (invited review)

S Anand*, J Sutanto*, M Baker, M Okandan, and J Muthuswamy, “Electrothermal microactuators with peg drive improve performance for MEMS brain implant applications” IEEE/ASME J Microelectromech Syst, vol. 21(5):1172-1186, 2012. (DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2012.2203789)

J Sutanto*, S Anand*, A Sridharan*, R Korb*, L Zhou*, M Baker, M Okandan and J Muthuswamy, “Packaging and Non-Hermetic Encapsulation Technology for Flip-chip on Implantable MEMS Devices,” IEEE/ASME J Microelectromech Syst, 21(4):882-896, 2012. (DOI: 10.1109/JMEMS.2012.2190712).

J Sutanto*, S Anand*, C Patel* and J Muthuswamy, “Novel first-level interconnect techniques for flip-chip on MEMS,” IEEE/ASME J Microelectromech Syst, 21(1):132-144, 2011 (abstract).

J Muthuswamy, S Anand, J Sutanto, M Baker and M Okandan, “Implantable microtechnologies for the brain: Challenges and strategies for reliable operation,” Proceedings of IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium (IRPS), 3B.2.1 - 3B.2.4, 10-14 April, 2011 (abstract).

N Jackson*, A Sridharan*, S Anand*, M Baker, M Okandan and J Muthuswamy, “Long-term neural recordings using MEMS based moveable microelectrodes in the brain,” Frontiers in Neuroengineering vol.3, article 10, 1-13, 2010. 

R Saha*, N Jackson*, C Patel* and J Muthuswamy, “Highly doped polycrystalline silicon microelectrodes reduce noise in neuronal recordings in vivo,” IEEE Trans Neural Sys Rehab Eng, 18(5): 489-497, 2010 (chosen as cover page article).

A Sridharan*, J Muthuswamy, V Pizziconi. “Biohybrid Photoelectrochemical Nanoengineered Interfaces,” in Materials and Strategies for Lab-on-a-Chip — Biological Analysis, Cell-Material Interfaces and Fluidic Assembly of Nanostructures, edited by S. Murthy, H. Zeringue, S. Khan, V. Ugaz 1191-OO03-19, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Volume 1191, Warrendale, PA, 2009.

N Jackson*, S Anand*, M Okandan and J Muthuswamy, “Non-hermetic Encapsulation Materials for MEMS Based Moveable Microelectrodes for Long-Term Implantation in the Brain,” IEEE/ASME J Microelectromech Syst, 18(6):1234-1245, 2009.

P Stice* and J Muthuswamy, “Assessment of gliosis around moveable implants in the brain,” J Neural Eng, 6, 046004, 2009.

A Sridharan*, J Muthuswamy and V Pizziconi, “Optoelectronic energy transfer at novel biohybrid interfaces using light harvesting complexes from Chloroflexus aurantiacus,” Langmuir, 25 (11), pp 6508–6516, 2009.

N Jackson* and J Muthuswamy, “Flexible Chip Scale Package and Interconnect for Implantable MEMS Movable Microelectrodes for the Brain,” IEEE/ASME J Microelectromech Syst, 18(2):396-404, 2009.

T Wang* and J Muthuswamy, “Immunosensor for inhibitor neurotransmitter GABA using quartz crystal microbalance,” Anal Chem, 80 (22), pp 8576–8582, 2008.

A Sridharan*, J Muthuswamy, J LaBelle and V Pizziconi, “Immobilization of Functional Light Antenna Structures Derived From The Filamentous Green Bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus,” Langmuir, 24(15): 8078-8089, 2008.

N Jackson* and J Muthuswamy, “Artificial dural sealant that allows multiple penetrations of long-term implantable brain probes,” J Neurosci Meth, 171(1):147-152, 2008.

T Jain* and J Muthuswamy, “Microelectrode array (MEA) platform for targeted neuronal transfection and recording,” IEEE Trans Biomed Eng Lett, 55(2):827-832, 2008.
(Article featured in Feb. 2008 issue of IEEE Spectrum, with circulation over 390,000 worldwide)

T Jain* and J Muthuswamy, “Bio-chip for spatially controlled transfection of nucleic acid payloads into cells in a culture,” Lab on a Chip , 7:1004-1011, 2007.
(Article featured in Chemical Biology, a Royal Society of Chemistry publication)

A Sridharan*, J Muthuswamy, J LaBelle, V Pizziconi,” Characterization of covalently immobilized chlorosomes on indium tin oxide conductive glass substrate, Biophysical Journal, 331A-331A, 2007.

P Stice*, A Gilletti*, A Panitch and J Muthuswamy, “Thin microelectrodes reduce GFAP expression in the implant site in rodent somatosensory cortex,” J Neural Eng, 4:42-53, 2007.

T Jain* and J Muthuswamy, “Microsystem for transfection of exogenous molecules with spatio-temporal control into adherent cells,” Biosensors & Bioelectronics, 22:863-870, 2007.

R Saha* and J Muthuswamy, “Structure-property relationships in the optimization of polysilicon thin films for electrical recording/stimulation of single neurons,” Biomedical Microdevices, 9(3):345-360, 2007 (DOI - 10.1007/s10544-006-9039-x).

A Gilletti* and J Muthuswamy, “Brain micromotion around implants in the rodent somatosensory cortex,” J Neural Eng, 3:189-195, 2006.
(; article chosen to be part of “IOP select” by the editors for novelty, significance and potential impact).

T Wang*, G Ehteshami, S Massia, and J Muthuswamy, “Immobilization and characterization of -aminobutyric acid (GABA) on gold surface," J Biomed Mater Res A, 79A(1):201-209, 2006.

J Muthuswamy, M Okandan, A Gilletti*, M Baker, and T Jain*, "An array of microactuated microelectrodes for monitoring single neuronal activity in rodents," IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 52:1470-1477, 2005.
(First to successfully demonstrate an integrated micromachining technology to move an array of chronically implantable microelectrodes in the brain)

M Khraiche*, A Zhou* and J Muthuswamy, “Acoustic sensor for monitoring adhesion of Neuro-2A cells in real-time," J Neurosci. Meth., 144(1):1-10, 2005.

J Muthuswamy, M Okandan, T Jain*, and A Gilletti*, "Electrostatic microactuators for precise positioning of Neural microelectrodes," IEEE Trans Biomed Eng, 52:1748-55, 2005.
(First to successfully demonstrate an integrated micromachining technology to move implantable microelectrodes in the brain)

J Muthuswamy, M Okandan, and N Jackson*, “Surface Micro-Machined Polysilicon Probes for Neurophysiology,” J. Neurosci. Meth., 142(1):45-54, 2005.
A Zhou* and J Muthuswamy, “Acoustic biosensor for monitoring antibody immobilization and neurotransmitter GABA in real-time” Sensors & Actuators B:Chem., 101:1-2:8-19, 2004.

J Muthuswamy, T Kimura, RG Geocadin, NV Thakor, and DF Hanley, “Vulnerability of the thalamic somatosensory pathway after prolonged global hypoxic-ischemic injury,” Neuroscience, 115(3):917-929, 2002.

P George, J Muthuswamy, J Currie, NV Thakor and M Paranjape, “Fabrication of Screen-Printed Carbon Electrode Arrays for Sensing Neuronal Messengers,” Biomedical Microdevices, 3:307-313, 2001.

RG Geocadin, J Muthuswamy, NV Thakor and DF Hanley, “Early electrophysiological and histological changes after global cerebral ischemia in rats,” Movement Disorders, 15S. 1:14-21, 2000.

J Muthuswamy, P Tran, R Rangarajan, FA Lenz, DF Hanley and NV Thakor, “Somatosensory stimulus entrains spindle oscillations in the thalamic VPL nuclei in barbiturate anesthetized rats,” Neurosci. Lett., 262(3): 191-194, 1999.

J Muthuswamy and NV Thakor, “Spectral analysis methods for neurological signals,” J Neurosci. Meth., 83(1):1-14, 1998.

J Muthuswamy, D Sherman and NV Thakor, “Higher order spectral analysis of EEG burst patterns during asphyxic injury,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng, 46(1): 92-99, 1999.

J Muthuswamy and RJ Roy, “The use of fuzzy integrals and bispectral parameters of Electroencephalograms to predict movement under isoflurane anesthesia,” IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 46(3): 291-299, 1999.

J Muthuswamy, RJ Roy and A Sharma, “A study of electroencephalographic descriptors & end-tidal concentration in estimating depth of anesthesia,” J Clin. Monit, 12(5): 353, 1996.

Pre-prints (not peer reviewed)
A Sridharan*, A Shah*, S Sampath Kumar*, J Kyeh*, J Smith, J Blain-Christen and J Muthuswamy, “Optogenetic modulation of cortical neurons using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs),” BioarXiv, 2019,

S Sampath Kumar*, M Baker, M Okandan and J Muthuswamy, “Engineering microscale systems for fully autonomous intracellular neural interfaces,” BioarXiv, 2019,


Bruce Towe and Jit Muthuswamy, “Wireless Multi-channel Neurostimulators and Methods to Use the Same,” US patent #11,141,596, issued on 10/12/2021.

Joseph Smith, Michael Goryll, Dixie Kullman, Jit Muthuswamy, Jennifer Blain-Christen, “Non-Invasive Transcutaneous Vagus Nerve Optogenetic Stimulator,” US patent #10,974,065, issued on 4/13/2021.

Jit Muthuswamy and Sivakumar Palaniswamy, “Device for neuroprosthetics with autonomous tunable actuators,” US patent #10835184, issued Nov. 17, 2020.

Joseph Smith, Barry O'Brien, Yong-Kyun Lee, Edward Bawolek, Jennifer Blain Christen, Michael Goryll, Jit Muthuswamy, George R. Kunnen, David Allee, “Integrated high-resolution untethered flexible neural implant,” US patent # 10589124, issued March 17, 2020.

Jemmy Sutanto and Jit Muthuswamy, “Method for Creating and Packaging 3-Dimensional Stacks of Biochips Containing Microelectro-Mechanical Systems” US patent # 8653642 issued Feb. 18, 2014.

Jemmy Sutanto and Jit Muthuswamy, “Systems and methods for high aspect ratio flip-chip interconnects,” US patent #9067272 issued June 30, 2015.

Arati Sridharan and Jit Muthuswamy, “Methods and compositions for high efficiency transfection of siRNA,” #61/713,310 US patent # 9,399,771 issued July 26, 2016.

J Muthuswamy, “Biomedical Signal processing: An overview,” in Standard Handbook of Biomedical Engineering and Design, Ed. by Myer Kutz, chapter 18, pp. 18.1-18.30, McGraw-Hill Publishers, New York, NY, 2003.

A Sridharan* and J Muthuswamy, “Gene Injection & Manipulation Using CMOS based Technologies,” (in press) in CMOS Bio-microsystems, Ed. Kris Iniewski, Wiley Publishers Inc., 2011.

J Muthuswamy and M Okandan, “MEMS Neural Probes,” Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology, Ed by Bharat Bhushan, Springer-Nature, 2012.

J Muthuswamy, A Sridharan* and M Okandan, “MEMS Neural Probes,” Encyclopedia of Nanotechnology, Ed by Bharat Bhushan, Springer-Nature, 2016.

A Sridharan* and J Muthuswamy, “Quantitative assessment of mechanical properties of neural interfaces,” Handbook of Neuroengineering, Ed. by Nitish Thakor, Springer-Nature, 2019.